This project work primarily based on isolation & identification of bacteria floral of the microbiology laboratory of the Osun State Polytechnic Iree using standard microbiological techniques. The identified bacteria species includes; Staphylococcus specie, Streptococcus specie and Bacillus Species.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Table of content v
1.0 Introduction 1
1.2 Micro organisms are a component of the atmosphere 1 – 3 1.4 Atmospheric Transportation of Micro organisms 3 – 4
1.5 Consolidating Microbiology and Atmospheric Science in the upcoming
Era of Bio-meteorology 4 – 5
2.0 Materials and method 6
2.1 Material 6
2.2 Media Preparation 6
2.3 Characteristic of bacteria isolates 7 – 8
3.0 Results 10
4.0 Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation 11
4.1 Discussion 11
4.2 Conclusion 12
4.3 Recommendation 13
Bacteria live all around us, they are microorganisms which cannot be seen with the naked eyes except with the use of microscope. They are procaryotic cell structure.
Bacteria are present in water and air, but our focus is bacteria present in air. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on earth and are present in most habitats on the planet.
Experiments was carried out in the microbiology laboratory to isolate and identify the bacterial present in the atmosphere of the laboratory. There are many bacteria in the air, some air floral bacteria discovered are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and bacillus specie. These bacteria cause diseases to both man and animal. For example, Bacillus organisms causes dysentary, Some causes throat disease, cholera, typhoid and urinary tract infection.
1.2 MICRO ORGANISMS ARE A COMPONENT OF THE ATMOSPHERE
For the past 200 years, research in the field of aerobiology has focused primarily on describing the types and taxonomic groups of biological particles in the atmosphere and the spatio-temporal variations in their abundance. The year 1847 can be considered as the starting point of aerobiology in a relatively modern sense when Ehrenberg published his monograph on” passat dust and blood rain-a great invisible organic action and life in the atmosphere”(krumbein,1995)
In 1993, an IGAP (International global Aerosol Programme) workshop in Geneva defined primary biological aerosol particles as airborne solid particles (dead or alive) that are or were derived from dead living organism, including micro organisms and fragments of all varieties of living things. According to the recent work of Jaenicke (2005) about 25% of the particles suspended in air(by mass or number) in the size range of 0.2 to 50um are primarily biological aerosol particles. This estimate is based on numerous observations, mainly via staining methods to distinguish individual protein-containing particles from others. In the work , particles smaller than 2um have been distinguished by morphology as well as typical elements .This abundance of biological particles in the air certainly raises the question of the world-wide production of such particles . Jaenicke (Jaenicke 2005) has estimated that the major sources of particles in Earth’s atmosphere–desert, oceans and the biosphere are of equal strength but the importance of microorganism or any organism as a component of aerosol and as players in atmospheric physico-chemial process is likely to vary substantially under different environmental conditions. As for mineral aerosols, microorganisms originate from sources and during seasons that are associated with their specific habitats. This gives rise to the important spatial and temporal variability of qualities of microorganisms in the air.
The clear take home message from two centuries of investigations is that biological particles in the atmosphere are ubiquitors and that microorganisms can be an important component of these biological particles. Microorganisms are particularly abundant during favourable period for disease of crop plants caused by fungi with aerially disseminated spores and of human activities that are particularly important in releasing microbial particles into the atmosphere such combining and other activities associated with crop harvesting. Concentration of bacteria, for example, near the canopy level have been observed to range between thousands to 108 bacteria m3. Among the bacteria detected in the atmosphere, many are Gram-positive and include spore formers such as Bacillus and micro bacterium spp. which were particularly dominant in the air during a dust event. But Gram-negative bacteria, having a cell wall that is considered to be more fragile than that of Gram-positive bacteria have also been found .
The most prevailing and well-studied effects on air flora variability are those to meteorological factors such as wind speed and direction , relative humidity ,rainfall and solar radiation .The chemical composition and PH of aerosols can also influence micro floral in the air. Several authors have reviewed the influence of meteorological factors on bacteria in the atmosphere. Concerning the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air-borne microbial concentrations have been observed to increase with increasing CO2 concentrations. The PH in the atmosphere can also influence the abundance and types of micro floral present. In Clouds, an acidic PH favors the presence of spore-forming bacteria where as a neutral PH is favourable to the presence of a greater diversity of microorganisms.
Seasonal and daily variation in the amount and kinds of microorganisms in the air also mark able. High concentrations of air-borne bacteria frequently occur from spring to fall in temperate areas of the world, mainly due to the fact that leaf surfaces are a major source of bacteria in the air.
1.3 ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORTATION OF MICROORGANISMS
The mechanisms that contribute to the abundance and ubiquity of micro organism in the atmosphere are the foundation of the roles they play in atmospheric process. Via these mechanism, sufficient number of microorganism can be transported to the pertinent atmosphere and deposition. The mechanism of microbial survival in the atmosphere are also critical to the atmospheric processes requiring active metabolism. The little information available about the properties of particles transporting microorganisms ,and again particularly for bacteria, leaves us wondering about how microorganisms survive, the factors that contribute to their metabolic activity in the atmosphere, and the most appropriate values for particle parameters in models to estimate their trajectories.
Above water surfaces, creation of aerosols containing microorganisms occurs by bubble bursting . This can lead to biological particles in the atmosphere in remote regions such as above the central Arctic ocean. Drying of leaf surfaces due to biological processes or to changing atmospheric conditions could also enhance the emission of plant associated microorganisms. We can speculate that microorganisms might also be released into the atmosphere even under calm conditions if microbial growth leads to population sizes that exceed the physical carrying capacity of the plant surfaces. Common techniques for measurement of aerosol number density shape, optical and surface properties, as well as chemical characterization of condensed and semi-volatile matter have been deployed ,but none can fully capture the physical and chemical complexity of biological matter. There is a need to determine which particle properties are most relevant. Techniques are needed that allow detection over space and relatively short time intervals of these particles whose concentrations are likely to be low.
Much of the data concerning the abundance of specific microorganisms in the air are based on the growth of these organisms on the culture media used for sampling. This approach has hidden the nature of the particles with which these microorganisms are associated. Observations of clusters containing bacteria-like particles and in some cases covered with mucus – like material suggest that chunks or remnants of microbial biofilms might be a sort of sailing ship for bacteria offering both a means of take-off and survival in the air . But over all, little is known about the properties of particles that transport microorganisms in the air. Specific information on the size and nature of the microbe–carrying particles is essential for transport models dependent on parameters concerning aerodynamic properties of particles and is also important for the development of detection tools that capture or detect particles based on size, shape, phase and chemical characteristics.
1.4 CONSOLIDATING MICROBIOLOGY AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES IN THE UPCOMING ERA OF BIO-METEOROLOGY
Research on the role of microorganisms in meteorological phenomena and in atmospheric processes in general is part of a growing interest in the importance of the biosphere on climate change. This is an under explored component of a research field referred to as bio-meteorology. An important challenge for the next decades regarding microorganisms is to go beyond description of microbial abundance in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport process at different scales . As we explore the interactions of microorganisms with the atmosphere, hypotheses about the importance other roles will likely emerge.
An additional challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in atmospheric processes thereby providing support for their specific involvement in these processes. This can implicate construction of conceptual and numerical models of microbial flux into the environment; of trajectories survival, multiplication ,metabolic activity and perhaps even genetic exchange; and of the degree to which different species or physiological states of microorganisms mediate processes affecting atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing the role of airborne bacteria as potential sources and sinks for acetone and other volatile organics in the atmosphere is one of the interesting questions in microbiological meteorology, with implications for climate and weather. Currently, few students take the risk to attain this multiple competency in their training because the extra investment in coursework is not always readily compatible with the requirements and the time constrains imposed by their training program. A greater flexibility of training programs in this regard will enhance progress of this and other research themes in environmental sciences. Corresponding chemistry and aerosol modules have been developed .Some models permit the study of interactions of cloud physics and aerosol physics including chemistry. Although there has been a major leap in the development of numerical models, there are still major gaps in these models for properly capturing elemental physical and chemical processes such as aerosol-cloud interactions. This has been noted as a major uncertainty for predicting climate change.
Furthermore, only a very limited number of model applications deal with biological particles, their sources and their possible environmental implications