Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Like nickel, cobalt is found in the Earth’s crust only in chemically combined form, save for small deposits found in alloys of natural meteoric iron. The free element, produced by reductive smelting, is a hard, lustrous, silver-gray metal. The rapid development of technology and the changes that are occurring in the world today largely affect on the environment. One of the primary sources of pollution of the biosphere are industrial plants, which emit both gaseous substances (eg. Carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen) and dust, containing all sorts of toxic substances. For the serious consequences of the development of civilization and industry should be spread include heavy metals. Included in the atmosphere, dust and heavy metals fall to the ground parts of plants and enters the soil. Shall be collected by the roots of plants or animals grazing on the roads and thus incorporated into the food chain. These elements are not biodegradable. They are indestructible and indelible. Once released into the environment continuously circulate therein, changing, at most its shape. Heavy metals are ubiquitous and can be detected in every organic material and in every living organism. They are a particular threat to humans.



Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi



1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                1



2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           3

2.1       What is Cobalt?                                                                                              3

2.2       Characteristics of Cobalt                                                                                3

2.3       Compounds                                                                                                     4

2.3.1    Oxygen and Chalcogen Compounds                                                              4

2.3.2    Halides                                                                                                            4

2.3.3    Coordination Compounds                                                                              5

2.3.4    Organometallic Compounds                                                                           5

2.3.5    Isotopes                                                                                                           5

2.4       Effect of Cobalt in the Environment                                                              6

2.5       The Exposure of Cobalt in the Environment                                                  7

2.6       Effect of Cobalt in Living Organism                                                              8

2.7       Occurrence and Recovery of Heavy Metals                                                   11



3.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      13

References                                                                                                      14




1.0                                                           INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

Cobalt (Co) is an essential element for life system as a factor against the anemic forming part of a molecule of vitamin B12 “cobalamin”. It irritates causing bone marrow hyperplasia, and consequently a significant increase in the number of red blood cells. In the tissues and organs of cobalt collects in small amounts. Causes allergic reactions and acute poisoning with paralysis of the nervous system and seizures. Chronic poisoning observed growth retardation and weight and enlarged thyroid deficiency associated with this gland (Brümmer, Gerth & Herms, 1986).

Cobalt is a naturally-occurring element that has properties similar to those of iron and nickel. It has an atomic number of 27. There is only one stable isotope of cobalt, which has an atomic mass number of 59. (An element may have several different forms, called isotopes, with different weights depending on the number of neutrons that it contains. The isotopes of an element, therefore, have different atomic mass numbers [number of protons and neutrons], although the atomic number [number of protons] remains the same.) However, there are many unstable or radioactive isotopes, two of which are commercially important, cobalt-60 and cobalt-57, also written as Co-60 or 60Co and Co-57 or 57Co, and read as cobalt sixty and cobalt fifty-seven. All isotopes of cobalt behave the same chemically and will therefore have the same chemical behavior in the environment and the same chemical effects on your body. However, isotopes have different mass numbers and the radioactive isotopes have different radioactive properties, such as their half-life and the nature of the radiation they give off. The half-life of a cobalt isotope is the time that it takes for half of that isotope to give off its radiation and change into a different isotope. After one half-life, one-half of the radioactivities are gone. After a second half-life, one-fourth of the original radioactivity is left, and so on. Radioactive isotopes are constantly changing into different isotopes by giving off radiation, a process referred to as radioactive decay. The new isotope may be a different element or the same element with a different mass.

Small amounts of cobalt are naturally found in most rocks, soil, water, plants, and animals, typically in small amounts. Cobalt is also found in meteorites. Elemental cobalt is a hard, silvery grey metal. However, cobalt is usually found in the environment combined with other elements such as oxygen, sulfur, and arsenic. Small amounts of these chemical compounds can be found in rocks, soil, plants, and animals. Cobalt is even found in water in dissolved or ionic form, typically in small amounts. (Ions are atoms, collections of atoms, or molecules containing a positive or negative electric charge.) A biochemically important cobalt compound is vitamin B12 or cyanocobalamin. Vitamin B12 is essential for good health in animals and humans. Cobalt is not currently mined in the United States, but has been mined in the past. Therefore, we obtain cobalt and its other chemical forms from imported materials and by recycling scrap metal that contains cobalt.




Chromium comes in a plethora of forms and shapes in nature; it is a naturally occurring element (Atomic Mass #52), and can be both helpful and harmful to human health and the environment. In the past decades the increased use of chromium (Cr) in several anthropogenic activities and consequent contamination of soil and water have become an increasing concern. Cr exists in several oxidation states but the most stable and common forms are Cr(0), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. Cr toxicity in plants depends on its valence state. Cr(VI) as being highly mobile is toxic, while Cr(III) as less mobile is less toxic. Cr is taken up by plants through carriers of essential ions such as sulphate. Cr uptake, translocation, and accumulation depend on its speciation, which also conditions its toxicity to plants. Symptoms of Cr toxicity in plants are diverse and include decrease of seed germination, reduction of growth, decrease of yield, inhibition of enzymatic activities, impairment of photosynthesis, nutrient and oxidative imbalances, and mutagenesis.



Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi



1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                1



2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           3

2.1       Sources of Chromium                                                                                     4

2.2       Transport of Chromium into the Environment                                               4

2.2.1    Bioavailability                                                                                                 5

2.2.2    Impacts on Human Health                                                                              5

2.2.3    Prevention or Mitigation                                                                                 6

2.3       Chromium in the Environment                                                                       6

2.3.1    Chromium in Water                                                                                        6

2.3.2    Chromium in Soil                                                                                            6

2.4       Chromium in Plants                                                                                        7

2.4.1    Chromium Uptake                                                                                          7

2.4.2    Chromium Accumulation and Translocation                                                  8

2.4.3    Plants with Potential of Phytoremediation of Chromium                              8

2.5       Growth and Development                                                                              10

2.5.1    Germination                                                                                                    10

2.5.2    Root Growth                                                                                                   11

2.5.3    Stem Growth                                                                                                  11

2.5.4    Leaf Growth                                                                                                   12

2.5.5    Yield                                                                                                               12

2.6       Physiological Processes                                                                                   12

2.6.1    Photosynthesis                                                                                                12



3.0       Conclusion                                                                                                      14

References                                                                                                      15





Figure 1          –           Sources of Chromium                                                   4


Figure 2          –           Bioavailability                                                               5



1.1       Introduction

Chromium is used mainly in metal alloys such as metal-ceramics, stainless steel, and is used as chrome plating. It has high value in the industrial world because it can be polished to a mirror-like finish, and provides a durable, highly rust resistant coating, for heavy applications. On the flip side, chromium can also provide health benefits to humans (Avudainayagam, et al., 2003).

Chromium (Cr) is the 17th most abundant element in the Earth’s mantle. It occurs naturally as chromite (FeCr2O4) in ultramafic and serpentine rocks or complexed with other metals like crocoite (PbCrO4), bentorite Ca6(Cr,Al)2(SO4)3 and tarapacaite (K2CrO4), vauquelinite (CuPb2CrO4PO4OH), among others. Cr is widely used in industry as plating, alloying, tanning of animal hides, inhibition of water corrosion, textile dyes and mordants, pigments, ceramic glazes, refractory bricks, and pressure-treated lumber. Due to this wide anthropogenic use of Cr, the consequent environmental contamination increased and has become an increasing concern in the last years (Liu et al., 2008).

Chromium exists in several oxidation states, but the most stable and common forms are Cr(0), the trivalent Cr(III), and the hexavalent Cr(VI) species. Cr(0) is the metallic form, produced in industry and is a solid with high fusion point usually used for the manufacturing of steel and other alloys. Cr(VI) in the forms of chromate (CrO4 2), dichromate (Cr2O7 2), and CrO3 is considered the most toxic forms of chromium, as it presents high oxidizing potential, high solubility, and mobility across the membranes in living organisms and in the environment. Cr(III) in the forms of oxides, hydroxides, and sulphates is less toxic as it is relatively insoluble in water, presents lower mobility, and is mainly bound to organic matter in soil and aquatic environments (Avudainayagam, et al., 2003).

Moreover, Cr(III) forms tend to form hydroxide precipitates with Fe at typical ground water pH values. At high concentrations of oxygen or Mn oxides, Cr(III) can be oxidized to

Cr(VI). As Cr(VI) and Cr(III) present different chemical, toxicological, and epidemiological characteristics, they are differently regulated by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which constitutes a unique characteristic of Cr among the toxic metals. Cr(VI) is a powerful epithelial irritant and also considered a human carcinogen. Cr(VI) is also toxic to many plants aquatic animals, and microorganisms. Contrarily to Cr(VI), Cr(III) is considered a micronutrient in humans, being necessary for sugar and lipid metabolism and is generally not harmful.


This paper discussed coefficient of correlation analysis at a selected location of Tree, Osun state in Nigeria with latitude and longitude of 7.5° and 4.3 l°E respectively during the years 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1989 and 1990. The temperature and range of radiative flux from Januaiy to December was between 28.2% to 86.9%. The minimum average values of both radiative flux  and temperature were generally found around December and August. The range of coefficient of corre1atjon r, between the radiative flux and temperature for the years 1989 to 1990 were between -0.93449 to -0.89066. This implies that strong interrelationlshjp exist between the two variables such that radiative flux increased temperature. decreased and vice- versa. The radiative flux of the location (free) during the years falls outside the range of Theimal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy which recommends keeping radiative flux between 30% and 60% and below 50% preferred to control dust mites.




Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certificate                                                                                                                   ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi-vii


1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                               1 – 2


2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           3

2.1       Effects of the solar cycle                                                                                3 – 4

2.2       Solar irradiance                                                                                               4

2.3       Short – wavelength radiation                                                                          5

2.4       Solar Radio Flux                                                                                             5 – 6


3.0       Results                                                                                                            7 – 21


4.0       Conclusion                                                                                                      22

4.1       Discussions                                                                                                     22 – 24

References                                                                                                      25





Generally, radiation codes for general circulation models (GCMs) include, together with other procedures, calculations of vertical profiles of upward and downward radiation fluxes which are needed to calculate radiant heat influxes. These last radiative characteristics serve as an input for a number of atmospheric processes predicted from GCMs, e.g., the equation of radiant heat influxes is sometimes a starting point for modeling the formation and evolution of cloud fields; the equation of heat balance of the earth’s surface involves solar and thermal radiation fluxes that govern the surface thermal regime; and so forth. Because calculation errors can significantly affect the description of these processes, of importance is the question of the accuracy of determinations of the upward and downward radiation fluxes at different atmospheric levels.

Most of the present GCM codes make use of the models of plane-parallel, horizontally homogeneous atmosphere and are based computationally on solving the equation of radiative transfer using deterministic optical characteristics. In the presence of clouds partially covering the sky, flux values represent a linear combination of clear- and overcast-sky fluxes weighted by a specific value of cloud fraction. Such an approach is adequate for the stratusclouds- only cases, when the parameter g » 0 (with g = H/

D, H the cloud layer thickness, and D the mean horizontal cloud size). Under the cumulus cloud conditions (g » 1), the approach can be regarded merely as a first, fairly crude approximation (Skorinov and Titov 1984; Titov 1987), recognizing that the shortwave radiative transfer is affected remarkably by the stochastic geometry of cloud fields. Mean albedo and transmission of shortwave radiation in the system “clouds-aerosol-underlying surface” are sufficiently investigated (Titov 1989).

I    resent work, we raise the question about the value of the effect the cloud field random geometry has on the mean upward and downward fluxes of the visible and near-IR solar radiation throughout the atmosphere. To this end, computations of the vertical profiles of radiant fluxes in cumulus are compared with those in equivalent (i.e., with the same optical characteristics) stratus. Treatment across the visible spectrum can be restricted to a discussion of results for a single wavelength, as the cloud optical characteristics change slightly, while the gaseous absorption is absent in this spectral range. In the near-IR spectral range, mean

fluxes are computed at once for a certain subinterval Dv whose width is determined by the spectral resolution of exploited transmission functions of atmospheric gases (for our case, Dv » 10 ÷ 20 cm-1).





The physico-chemical properties of Honey was determined by analyzing the proximate, Ash content, Sulphated Ash, Total organic solids, Specific Gravity, Water content, Refractive Index, PH, Total sugar /Reducing (Brix),Colour (Icumsa Unit), Dextrose(%), Fructose, Glucose, Viscosity(p/sec). The result indicated proximate composition to be Ash content(%)(2.53-1.07), Sulphated Ash(1.23-0.85),Total organic solids(18.23-20.35),Specific Gravity(1.40-1.41),Water scontent (20.20-20.80),Refractive Index(1.488-1.487),PH(4.20-4.00),Total sugars (79.20-78.60), Colour (61.33-64.97), Dextrose (8.56-0.45), Fructose (39.51-46.27), Glucose (31.13-31.88),Viscosity(3.48-5.04).



Title page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v


Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                            1 – 3

1.1       Aims and Objectives                                                               3


Chapter Two

2.0       Literature review                                                                     4

2.1       History of honey                                                                     4

2.2       Religious significance of honey                                              4 – 5

2.2.1    Physical properties                                                                  5

2.2.2    Uses of honey                                                                                     6

2.3       Honey grading                                                                                    6 – 7

2.4       Types of honey                                                                       7 – 9

2.5       Varieties                                                                                  9 – 10

2.6       Classification                                                                          10 – 11

2.7       Quality Indicator                                                                   11

2.8       Food value                                                                              12

2.9       Granulation                                                                             12

2.10     Determination of quality                                                         12 – 13

2.12     Sugars                                                                                     13

2.13     Proteins and amino-acids                                                        13

2.14     Nutritional                                                                               13 – 14

2.15     Modern uses of honey                                                                        14 – 15

2.16     Osmotic effect                                                                                    15

2.17     Honey drew honey                                                                 15 – 16

2.18     Classification by packaging and processing                           16 – 17


Chapter Three

3.0       Materials and methodology                                                    18

3.1       Fructose                                                                                  18

3.2       Glucose                                                                                   18

3.3       Reducing disaccharides as maltose                                         19

3.4       Sucrose                                                                                    19

3.5       Higher sugars or dextrin                                                         20

3.6       Determination of sugars                                                          20 – 21

3.7       Distribution of sugars                                                             21

3.8       Separation of sugars in honey                                                 21

3.9       Glucose (Commercial) in honey                                              22


Chapter Four

4.0       Presentation and analysis of data                                           23

4.1       Presentation of table                                                               24 – 26


Chapter Five

5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                           26

5.1       Conclusion                                                                              26

5.2       Recommendation                                                                    26

References                                                                              27




Honey is as old as written history dating back to 2100 BC where it was mentioned Sumerian and Babylonian cuneiform writings, the Hittie code and then sacred writings of India and Egypt it is presumably even older than that. It names from English living and it was the first and most wide spread sweetener used by man, legend has it that cupid dipped his love arrows in honey before aiming at unsuspecting lovers. In the old testament of the Bible, Israel was often referred to as the land of milk and honey. “Mead, an alcoholic drink made from honey was called nectar of the goods” high praise indeed. Honey was valued highly and often used as a form of currency tribute or offering. In the 4th century (A. D German) peasants paid their feudal Lords in honey and beeswax. .According to Hoff F. (1994)  Honey: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation. Agricultural Economic Report. No 708 A. 107. 708.

Although experts argue whether the honeybee is native to the Americas, conquering spanards in 1600 AD found Mexicans and Central Americans had already developed bee keeping method to produce honey. In ancient days, honey has been used not only in food and beverages, but also to make cement in furniture polishes and varnishes and for medicinal purposes. And of course, bees perform vital senlice of pollinating fruits, legumes and other types of food producing plants in the course of their business of honey production. Honey was pronounced in English (hnni) is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees i.e. (GenusApis) is the most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by bee keepers and consumed by human. (According to   Ministry of Agricultural, Fisheries and Food (1997). Production and Marketing of Honey. Select committees on the Europeans Communities, Session 1996-7,8th Report. The stationary office London). Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees transform nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation, and store it as a primary food source wax honey combs inside the beehive. Beekeeping practices encourage over production of honey so the excess can be taken from the colony. Honey acts its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavours that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweetness. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity (9w) of 0.6. However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium clostridium botulinum which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin producing bacteria in the infant’s immature intestinal tract, leading to illness and even death. (Ambrose J.J  Graham (ed) (1992). The Hive and the honey bee. Prof. Entomology and Extension Apricultist, NC State Univ. Hamilton, IL: Danant.)

In the hive, the bees use their “Honey stomachs” to ingest and regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion until the product reaches a desired quality. It is then store honeycomb cells after the final regurgitation the honeycomb is left unsealed. However, the nectar is still high in both water content and natural yeast which unchecked would cause the sugars in the nectar to ferment. The process continues as bees inside the hive fan their wings creating a strong draft across the honeycomb, which enhances evaporation of much of the water from the nectar. This reduction in water content raises the sugar concentration and prevent fermentation. Ripe honey as removed from the hive by a bee keeper has a long shelf-life and will not ferment if pro in that it will rotate the polarization plane. The fructose will give a negative rotation while the glucose will give a positive one. The overall can rotation be used to measure the ratio of the mixture.

Moreso, honey has the ability to absorb moisture directly from the air, making use of a phenomenon called hygroscopy. The amount of water the honey will absorb is dependent on the relative humidity of the air. This hygroscopic nature require that honey be stored in a sealed containers to prevent fermentation. Honey will tend to absorb more water in this manner than the individual sugars would allow on their own which may be due to other ingredients it contains.(Balderrama, N,R. Menzel & A. Mercer (eds) (1996). Neurobiology and Behaviour of Honeybees. Behavioural and Pharmacological Analysis of the Response in Africanized and Italian Bees .New York Times)

Honey which contains a number of antioxidants components that act as preservatives, also shows promise as a replacement for some synthetic antioxidant widely used as a preservatives in salad dressings and other foods, according to Vicki Engeseth, associate professor of food chemistry at the university. High fructose syrups that is known as Isoglucose in Europe, kicked in the US in the 1970s when the country developed new technologies to process this bulk calorific sweetener. The ingredient is an alternative to sucrose rapidly gained in popularity and is now used extensively by soft drinks makers such as Coca-cola and Pepsi-cola.The Aims and Objectives of the work was to determine the Chemical and Physico-chemical properties of Honey.



This project work primarily based on isolation & identification of bacteria floral of the microbiology laboratory of the Osun State Polytechnic Iree using standard microbiological techniques. The identified bacteria species includes; Staphylococcus specie, Streptococcus specie and Bacillus Species.




Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of content                                                                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi



1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.2       Micro organisms are a component of the atmosphere                                     1 – 3 1.4          Atmospheric Transportation of Micro organisms                                                     3 – 4

1.5       Consolidating Microbiology and Atmospheric Science in the upcoming

Era of Bio-meteorology                                                                                              4 – 5



2.0       Materials and method                                                                                                 6

2.1       Material                                                                                                                       6

2.2       Media Preparation                                                                                                       6

2.3       Characteristic of bacteria isolates                                                                               7 – 8



3.0       Results                                                                                                                        10                   


4.0       Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation                                                           11

4.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   11

4.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  12

4.3       Recommendation                                                                                                        13

Reference                                                                                                                    14




Bacteria live all around us, they are microorganisms which cannot be seen with the naked eyes except with the use of microscope. They are procaryotic cell structure.

Bacteria are present in water and air, but our focus is bacteria present in air. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on earth and are present in most habitats on the planet.

Experiments was carried out in the microbiology laboratory to isolate and identify the bacterial present in the atmosphere of the laboratory. There are many bacteria in the air, some air floral bacteria discovered are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and bacillus specie. These bacteria cause diseases to both man and animal. For example, Bacillus organisms causes dysentary, Some causes throat disease, cholera, typhoid and urinary tract infection.   



For the past 200 years, research in the field of aerobiology has focused primarily on describing the types and taxonomic groups of biological particles in the atmosphere and the spatio-temporal variations in their abundance. The year 1847 can be considered as the starting point of aerobiology in a relatively modern sense when Ehrenberg published his monograph on” passat dust and blood rain-a great invisible organic action and life in the atmosphere”(krumbein,1995)

In 1993, an IGAP (International global Aerosol Programme) workshop in Geneva defined primary biological aerosol particles as airborne solid particles (dead or alive) that are or were derived from dead living organism, including micro organisms and fragments of all varieties of living things. According to the recent work of Jaenicke (2005) about 25% of the particles suspended in air(by mass or number) in the size range of 0.2 to 50um are primarily biological aerosol particles. This estimate is based on numerous observations, mainly via staining methods to distinguish individual protein-containing particles from others. In the work , particles smaller than 2um have been distinguished by morphology as well as typical elements .This abundance of biological particles in the air certainly raises the question of the world-wide production of such particles . Jaenicke (Jaenicke 2005) has estimated that the major sources of particles in Earth’s atmosphere–desert, oceans and the biosphere are of equal strength but the importance of microorganism or any organism as a component of aerosol and as players in atmospheric physico-chemial process is likely to vary substantially under different environmental conditions. As for mineral aerosols, microorganisms originate from sources and during seasons that are associated with their specific habitats. This gives rise to the important spatial and temporal variability of qualities of microorganisms in the air.

The clear take home message from two centuries of investigations is that biological particles in the atmosphere are ubiquitors and that microorganisms can be an important component of these biological particles. Microorganisms are particularly abundant during favourable period for disease of crop plants caused by fungi with aerially disseminated spores and of human activities that are particularly important in releasing microbial particles into the atmosphere such combining and other activities  associated with crop harvesting. Concentration of bacteria, for example, near the canopy level have been observed to range between thousands to 108 bacteria m3. Among the bacteria detected in the atmosphere, many are Gram-positive and include spore formers such as Bacillus and micro bacterium spp. which were particularly dominant in the air during a dust event. But Gram-negative bacteria, having a cell wall that is considered to be more fragile than that of Gram-positive bacteria have also been found .

The most prevailing and well-studied effects on air flora variability are those to meteorological factors such as wind speed and direction , relative humidity ,rainfall and solar radiation .The chemical composition and PH of aerosols can also influence micro floral in the air. Several authors have reviewed the influence of meteorological factors on bacteria in the atmosphere. Concerning the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air-borne microbial concentrations have been observed to increase with increasing CO2 concentrations. The PH in the atmosphere can also influence the abundance and types of micro floral present. In Clouds, an acidic PH favors the presence of spore-forming bacteria where as a neutral PH is favourable to the presence of a greater diversity of microorganisms.

Seasonal and daily variation in the amount and kinds of microorganisms in the air also mark able. High concentrations of air-borne bacteria frequently occur from spring to fall in temperate areas of the world, mainly due to the fact that leaf surfaces are a major source of bacteria in the air.



The mechanisms that contribute to the abundance and ubiquity of micro organism in the atmosphere are the foundation of the roles they play in atmospheric process. Via these mechanism, sufficient number of microorganism can be transported to the pertinent atmosphere and deposition. The mechanism of microbial survival in the atmosphere are also critical to the atmospheric processes requiring active metabolism. The little information available about the properties of particles transporting microorganisms ,and again particularly for bacteria, leaves us wondering about how microorganisms survive, the factors that contribute to their metabolic activity in the atmosphere, and the most appropriate values for particle parameters in models to estimate their trajectories.

Above water surfaces, creation of aerosols containing microorganisms occurs by bubble bursting . This can lead to biological particles in the atmosphere in remote regions such as above the central Arctic ocean. Drying of leaf surfaces due to biological processes or to changing atmospheric conditions could also enhance the emission of plant associated microorganisms. We can speculate that microorganisms might also be released into the atmosphere even under calm conditions if microbial growth leads to population sizes that exceed the physical carrying capacity of the plant surfaces. Common techniques for measurement of aerosol number density shape, optical and surface properties, as well as chemical characterization of condensed and semi-volatile matter have been deployed ,but none can fully capture the physical and chemical complexity of  biological matter. There is a need to determine which particle properties are most relevant. Techniques are needed that allow detection over space and relatively short time intervals of these particles whose concentrations are likely to be low.

Much of the data concerning the abundance of specific microorganisms in the air are based on the growth of these organisms on the culture media used for sampling. This approach has hidden the nature of the particles with which these microorganisms are associated. Observations of clusters containing bacteria-like particles and in some cases covered with mucus – like material suggest that chunks or remnants of microbial biofilms might be a sort of sailing ship for bacteria offering both a means of take-off and survival in the air . But over all, little is known about the properties of particles that transport microorganisms in the air. Specific information on the size and nature of the microbe–carrying particles is essential for transport models dependent on parameters concerning aerodynamic properties of particles and is also important for the development of detection tools that capture or detect particles based on size, shape, phase and chemical characteristics.



Research on the role of microorganisms in meteorological phenomena and in atmospheric processes in general is part of a growing interest in the importance of the biosphere on climate change. This is an under explored component of a research field referred to as bio-meteorology. An important challenge for the next decades regarding microorganisms is to go beyond description of microbial abundance in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport process at different scales . As we explore the interactions of microorganisms with the atmosphere, hypotheses about the importance other roles will likely emerge.

An additional challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in atmospheric processes thereby providing support for their specific involvement in these processes. This can implicate construction of conceptual and numerical models of microbial flux into the environment; of trajectories survival, multiplication ,metabolic activity and perhaps even genetic exchange; and of the degree to which different species or physiological states of microorganisms mediate processes affecting atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing the role of airborne bacteria as potential sources and sinks for acetone and other volatile organics in the atmosphere is one of the interesting questions in microbiological meteorology, with implications for climate and weather. Currently, few students take the risk to attain this multiple competency in their training because the extra investment in coursework is not always readily compatible with the requirements and the time constrains imposed by their training program. A greater flexibility of training programs in this regard will enhance progress of this and other research themes in environmental sciences. Corresponding chemistry and aerosol modules have been developed .Some models permit the study of interactions of cloud physics and aerosol physics including chemistry. Although there has been a major leap in the development of numerical models, there are still major gaps in these models for properly capturing elemental physical and chemical processes such as aerosol-cloud interactions. This has been noted as a major uncertainty for predicting climate change.

Furthermore, only a very limited number of model applications deal with biological particles, their sources and their possible environmental implications




This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolate from apparently healthy domestic livestock viz: cow, goats and chicken from Oyo State Nigeria. E. coli was isolated using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolate were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. A total of 42 different antibiotics resistance profile were observed with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested. Generally, the E. coli isolates showed resistance rates of 93.8% to Ampicilin; 15.3% to Chloramphenicol, 52.7% to cloxacillin, 74.3% Erythromycin, 20.9% to Gentamicin, 53.8% to Penicillin, 17.7% to Streptomycin, 67.3% to Tetracyclin, 21.1% to Ceftazidine 70.7% to Cefuroxine, 20.5% to Cefixine, 28.8% to Ofloxacine, 58.6% to Augmentin, 27.2% to Nitorfurantion 27.3% to Ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed that average number of resistance phenotypes per isolate was significantly higher for cow compared with poultry. A significant public health concern observed in this study is that multi drug resistant: commensal E. coli strains may constitute a potential reservoir of resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.  



 Composite jam was produced from four different tropical fruits – pineapple, apple, orange and banana at different proportion. Four different samples were produced with the following proportion sample A 70% pineapple and 10% of banana, apple and orange. Sample B 70% banana, 10% pineapple, apple and orange. Sample C 70% apple, 10% orange, pineapple apple and banana. Sample D 70% orange. 10% pineapple, banana and apple. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis using multiple comparism method. Sample A which compare of 70% pineapple pulp was rated best in term of colour spread-ability, and General Acceptability while sample B, C and D was rated best in term of texture, taste. However statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant different among the four sample.



 The production and evaluation of bread from blends of wheat, ripe plantain and fermented plantain flour were produced. Proximate, functional, pasting and sensory analyses were carried out on them. The ripe plantain and the fermented plantain flour were blends with wheat in different proportions, 90 : 10, 80 : 20, 70 : 30, 60 : 40 and 50 : 50. From the sensory analysis carried out, ripe plantain and fermented plantain flour were generally more acceptable in the production of bread with blends of wheat flour at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratio respectively i.e. 90% of wheat and 10% of fermented plantain flour 90% of wheat and 10% of ripe plantain flour and 80% of wheat and 20% of fermented plantain flour, 80% of wheat and 20% of ripe plantain flours. And when compared with whole wheat bread there were little significant difference between them. From the proximate analysis carried out fermented plantain flour contains moisture (10%), ash (3%), crude protein (8.95%), dry matter (90%) and either extract (1%) while ripe plantain flour contains Moisture (10%), Dry matter (90%), Ash (4%), Crude fibre (1%), either extract (1%) and crude protein (9.02%). From functional analysis carried out, ripe plantain flour had the bulk density of 0.459/cm3, water holding capacity of 8.5g/g, pH value of 4.62, water absorption of 0.23g/g, solubility index of 28% and the gel strength is very strong while fermented plantain flour had the bulk density of 0.7g/cm3, water holding capacity of 7.5g/g, pH value of 4.71, water absorption of 0.2g/g, solubility index of 25% and also the gel strength of fermented plantain flour is very strong. The analysis of the bread samples revealed that the bread samples stay for four days before spoilage.