This research is about the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture “A case study of the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (B.C.O.S), Ibadan. Survey method was employed for this study while questionnaire was used as an instrument to gather data analysis for the study. One hundred (100) questionnaires returned were administered on the respondents out of the one hundred and thirty (130) questionnaires that were distributed to the selected respondents. Findings in this research shows the way B.C.O.S Television programmes helps to promote indigenous language and culture.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi – vii
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1 – 3
1.2 A brief History of Television Broadcasting in Nigeria 3 – 4
1.3 Historical Background of the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State
1.4 B.C.O.S was Established for the Following Objectives 4 – 5
1.5 Statement of the Problem 5
1.6 Purpose of the Study 5
1.7 Significance of the Study 6
1.8 Scope of the Study 6
1.9 Limitations to the Study 6
1.10 Research Questions 6 – 7
1.11 Operational Definition of Terms 7
2.0 Literature Review 8
2.1 The Role and Effects of Communication 8
2.2 Television and Development 9
2.3 Language and Culture 9 – 10
2.4 Language in the Society 10
2.5 Nigeria Broadcasting Commission (N B C) 11
2.5.2 The Commission’s Main Functions 11
2.5.3 The Commission’s Broad Objectives 11 – 12
2.6 Mass Media and Cultural Development 12
2.7 Television and Indigenous Language 12 – 13
3.0 Methodology 14
3.1 Study Population 14
3.2 Sampling Instrument 14
3.3 Methods of Data Collection 14 – 15
3.4 Method of Data Analysis 15
3.5 Validity and Reliability 15
3.6 Restatement of Research Questions 15
4.0 Data Analysis Presentation 16
4.1 Data Analysis 16 – 18
4.2 Analysis of Respondents Responses to the Research 18 – 23
5.0 Summary 24
5.1 Suggestions 24
5.2 Conclusion 24 – 25
5.3 Recommendation 25
Appendix I 27
Appendix II 28 – 29
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The mass media play a key role in shaping the social and political
process of a nation. They provide access to informations through public opinions ailed and giving chances to people to make decision of an interested issues.
Mass media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Broadcasting media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprises of television, radio, film movies, CDs, DVDs and other devices such as cameras and video consoles e.t.c.
Alternatively, print media use a physical object as a means of sending their information such as newspaper, magazines, comics books brochures, newsletters and pamphlets. The organization that control these technologies such as television stations or publishing companies are also known as the mass media.
More so, we have the internet media which most people also refers to as a (social media) is able to achieve mass media status in its own right due to the many media services it provides, such as facebook, email, websites, blogging, 2go etc. for this reasons, many mass media outlets have a presence on the web, by such things as having TV ads that link to a website, or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. In this way, they can utilize the easy accessibility that the internet has and the outreach that internet affords, as information can easily be broadcasted to many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost efficiently. Outdoor media is a form
Television as a single medium is been as having a leadership role to play in the development of a country. Its power of immediacy and concretization gives it a greater credibility ahead of other media.
Television broadcasting involves simultaneous transmission of Sound and pictures and are transmitted in motion. The television which helps to extend our senses of vision and hearing has also helps to change the altitude and behviour of people (influenced by television portrayals) whereby causing people to acquire new ways of life. These portrayals can be positive and purposeful will help to promote indigenous language and culture.
Language is perceived to be the cognitive faculty that enables humans to learn and use system of complex communication.
Language, in its simplest form, is a system of artificial signs and it separate words or signs bear no likeness to the things they signify and no meaning except those that we give to them arbitrarily meanings are assigned to words based on the ideas we have for them . The words we hear will be meaningless without an image in mind. Also, language often expresses peoples culture, which is always different from that of other people in many respects.
Indigenous language which is also referred to as an autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous peoples.
Dr. Victoria Okoronkwo, who expressed the concern in an interview with Thisday, said studies have shown that 60% of most Nigerian profound dialect speakers are above the age of 50.
The number of languages estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 520, this number includes 510 living language, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages spoken in Nigeria are Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Fulfulde, Kauri and Ibibio.
This language would be from a linguistically district community that has been settled in the area for many generations.
Many indigenous languages have fallen out of use because of language death, language extinction or linguicide, which is a process that is said to affect speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers posses of a given language variety is decreased, eventually resulting in no native or fluent speakers of the variety.
Language death may affect any language idiom including dialects and other languages.
Culture, according to Nabofa (1988), includes the way people behave. It comprises his they do as that complex whole which include knowledge, beliefs arts, morals customs and all other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
Whatever a person exposes himself to in terms of knowledge he acquires and information he imbibed has a way of life.
However as the western culture permeates the African society, the African culture is fast becoming absolute and this of course, forms the basis of the problem which the study seeks to address, which to examine if and how the television medium employs indigenous language and culture to rejuvenate the receding African culture.
The African culture is definitely losing its ground, as African Values goes into obscurity and if nothing is done to reawaken it,Western culture will perpetually dominate the African society.
The question that needs to be asked therefore is whether the television medium as an agent of communication,should behold programmes and whether they are African cultural heritage.
1.2 A BRIEF HISTORY OF TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA.
Broadcasting was introduced to Nigeria in 1932 and the
Nigerian Broadcasting service was established in 1957: on the last day of October, 1959, the first television station in’ Black Africa was officially commissioned. The Western Nigeria Television. (WNTU) based in Ibadan, Nigeria.
At its opening, the premier of the Nigerian region, Chief Obafemi Awolowo said that the venture was started because the regional government was convinced that it could play a major role in increasing both the pace and standard of education which was regarded as the key to progress in all other fields.
The station was also expected to bring information about Nigeria and the outside world into the peoples home, so that they might benefit from the knowledge. Television was meant to serve as a teacher and an entertainer, and a stimulus to all, to transform Nigeria into a modern and prosperous nation.
As years went by, more station were established in other parts of the country. In western Nigeria, Broadcasting Corporation began on October, 1960, and in Northern Nigeria, the Broadcasting Corporation was responsible for radio and television broadcasting, other regional stations grew from these three until December 1975 when the federal military government announced its intention to regulates and assume responsibility for colour television network in Nigeria.
The take over of all television stations in the country gave birth to the Nigerian Television authority (NTA).A corporate body changed with the
responsibility of providing an independent and imparted television broadcasting for general reception within the country” (IKIME 1979).
1.3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF OYO STATE (B.C.O.S).
The colonial, masters, Britain, Introduced broadcasting into Nigeria in 1932. The western region, before independence, had gone into regional broadcasting by establishing the western Nigeria broadcasting corporation (W.N.B.C) to offer both radio and television services in 1953.
In 1976, when the creation of states took place in the country and three states were served out of western region namely: Oyo, Ogun, and Ondo.The Core of broadcasting remained in Ibadan, the Oyo state capital which was the then capital of western state, also, in 1991 when another state Osun, was created out of the old Oyo state, Ibadan still remained as the pace-setter in broadcasting in Nigeria.
It is clear from what has been said thus for that, Oyo State has been into electronic media broadcasting since even Nigerians independence in 1960. The state runs both the Radio and television station which resulted in three channels — Radio I on medium wave bond (MW), radio 2 on frequently modulation (FM) stereo and television service of Oyo State (T.S.O.S) established in. 1976 and 1982 respectively operated independently under separate management until 1984 when a manager came. The manager gave birth to the corporate entity now as the Broadcasting Corporation of State (B.C.O.S) comprising BCOS television, Radio (AM) and radio (FM) under a single management.
1.3 BCOS WAS ESTABLISHED FOR THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES
- To provide television and radio broadcasting services as public services as public services for dissemination of information, education and entertainment.
- To secure coverage and long reach for the programmes broadcast by radio and
television services which are in compliance with the general standard of social ethnics and good tastes.
- To make sponsorship and advertisement priority for the benefit of producers of goods and services and philanthropists.
- To prescribe the advertisements and methods of advertising to be prohibited in
particular circumstances by drawing and from time to time reviewing a code governing standards and practice advertising.
- To ensure accurate impartial objectives and balance news.
6. To maintain balance in political industrial and religious matters.
1.4 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The African culture is a rich one. However, it is fast receding into obscurity because of cultural invasion by the west. This informs the problem which this study seeks to address which is if the television rnedia can rejuvenate the receding African culture through indigenous language and cultural based programming considering,the fact that a person’s habit can be formed and his behaviour influenced based on what he is exposed to in terms of the knowledge acquired and the information imbibed.
Furthermore, the television as a single medium, due to its power c immediacy and concretization appears to have greater ability than any other medium today. Hence, it is viewed as having a leadership role to play in the progressive development of the nation.
1.5 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The study aims to look at how effective the television has been promoting indigenous language and culture in the African society. This research work will critically aim at studying the roles and effectiveness of the B.C.O.S. television Ibadan in promoting indigenous language and culture. And if the station has not succeeded in achieving the goal of promoting indigenous language and culture in Ibadan an attempt will be made to know why, and useful suggestion will be offered to enable the station to improve upon the broadcast contents that could achieve this purpose.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
At the end of this study, the result of this research will help the station to know the extent the contents of its programmes help in promoting indigenous language and culture and the perception of its audience.
The study will be getting them know, if they are really doing well as agent of language and culture. It will also benefit the general public to enable them know more about their cultural heritage through indigenous language and cultural based programmes. It is also hoped that, it will create promise for further studies.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study will be limited to only one broadcasting corporation in Ibadan. Oyo state,that is the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (B.C.O.S) and also viewers of B.C.O.S. Although Yoruba language is the indigenous language of the state and it is actively used by the state, its populated by people of ethnic diversity also the station has a large heterogeneous audience.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture.
The major limitations to this project are:-
- Time constraints:- much time is not given in for the proper writing and gathering of the project work.
- Liability to get the required materials in bulk. The project materials are not much available at once for. Proper gathering and writing of the project.
- Financial constraint:- the money spent during the project as been so lenty for one to get more informations about the project from where money is been required.
1.9 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- To what extent can B.C.O.S television be regarded as promoter of indigenous language and culture?
- In what ways does the B.C.O.S television promote indigenous language and culture?
- How can Nigeria television be repositioned to better promote the African culture?
- What are the problems encountered by the B.C.O.S television Ibadan in an attempt to promote indigenous language and culture?
- Which of the following programmes aired on B.C.O.S television helps to promote indigenous. Language and culture?
- News and current affairs
1.10 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE: Indigenous language which is also called autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, but has been reduced to the status of a minority language.
CULTURE: Culture in its simplest meaning is said to be the complex whole which include knowledge, benefits, arts, morals, customs and all other capabilities and habits acquire by a man as a member of a nation country or society.
MASS MEDIA: The mass media can be refers to all those media technologies that are intended to reach large audience by mass communication. Also, It can be refers to as the means of communication that reach large numbers of people in a short time, such as television newspapers, magazines and radio.
TELEVISION: Television is said to be a system for transmitting visual images with sound and displaying them electronically on a screen.