THE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD IN CORPORATE FINANCIAL REPORTING IN NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT

The focus on this study is to provide empirical frame work for the appreciation of the relevance of accounting standard in cooperate financial reporting in the Nigeria private sector viz – a –viz the ever – increasing demand of the user of financial statements. It reflects on the scope of coverage provided by statement of account standards (S.A.S) issued, by the Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB) for business activities in the Nigeria economy. Also, it is to be reference work for further research topic. The study is design to proffer solution to the problem of limited information in the financial statement, non – compliance of reporting enterprises with SAS and the slow, untimely response of SAS issued from time to time. The study draws the view of people through questionnaire administration regarding the relevance of accounting standard in corporate financial report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi – vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of the problem 2
  • Research question 2 – 3
  • Hypotheses of the study 3
  • The objective of the study 3
  • The scope of the study 4
  • Limitation of the study 4
  • The significance of the study 4
  • Definition of terms 5

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                    6

2.1       Historical backgrounds                                                                                   6 – 7

2.2       Current literature reviews                                                                               8

2.2.1    Financial reporting                                                                                          8 – 9

2.2.2    Accounting standard                                                                                      9

2.2.3    The Nigeria accounting standard board (NASB)                                           9 – 10

2.2.4    Statement of accounting standard (SAS)                                                       10 -11

2.2.5    Legal status of accounting standard                                                               11 – 12

2.2.6    Shortcoming of financial reporting in Nigeria                                                12

2.2.7    Criticisms/lapses of accounting standard (SAS)                                             12

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   13

3.1       Research design                                                                                              13

3.2       Area of the study                                                                                            13

3.3       Population of the study                                                                                  13 -14

3.4       Sample and sampling procedure                                                                     14

3.5       Instrument of data collection                                                                          14 – 15

3.6       Method of data collection                                                                              15

3.7       Method of data analysis.                                                                                15 – 17

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0       Introduction                                                                                                    18

4.1       presentation and analysis of data                                                                    18

4.1.1    Respondent characteristics                                                                             18 – 20

4.1.2    Open ended and two way question                                                                20 – 22

4.1.3    Analysis / test of hypothesis                                                                           22 – 23

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  

5.1       Introduction                                                                                                    25

5.2       Summary                                                                                                         25

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                      26

5.4       recommendations                                                                                            26 – 27

References                                                                                                      28

Appendix I                                                                                                      29

Appendix II                                                                                                    30

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

In recent time, the field of accounting at large has witnessed a contrast between two things: accounting theory and accounting practice.

Accounting theory may be describe a logical reasoning in the form of a set of board principle that provide a general frame of references by which accounting practice can be evaluated and that guide the development of new practice and procedures. It has its most important goal, the provision of a coherent set of logical principle that forms the general frame of reference or the evaluation and the development of sound accounting practices.

Furthermore, its primary test lies in its ability to explain or predict a pass current event, and verification of the prediction or explanation serve as, at least, a partial test of ability of the theory to predict future vent and condition. All theories are subjected to modification or abandonment with the development of new theories that permit better predictions. The general notion that “what goes up must come down drastically modified when objects were shot into space never to return, although the refined theories of gravitational pull had long before predicted such an event,.

Accounting practice, on the other hand, encompasses all activities undertaken by professional accountants with a network of conventions and guidelines and procedures for the purpose of preparing, presenting and providing financial information that depict a fair and reasonable disclosure of the financial affairs of the respective organization, enterprises and firm to which belong. This aspect of accounting has continued to evolve on response to changing accounting techniques and concepts.

New accounting practices have been necessary ton keep pace with changing economic institutions and relationship and the changing objectives of accounting practice and procedure about with respect to the provision, presentation and reporting of financial information relating to several reporting enterprises. However, Accounting theory is closely related to accounting practice, whether it is an evaluation practice and it effects, or an explanation of practice, or the development of a framework for the audience of change in accounting practice and adoption to new environments. It becomes very clear there, from the above, that accounting theory serves as a guide and relator for accounting practice.

This interdependence between theory and practice is what informed the present part of accounting theory, corporate financial reporting is a by. Product of practice. In view of the fact that most businesses today are operated in the form limited liability companies which are owned by shareholders and managed by director appointed by such shareholders, coupled with the consideration that the last decades are continued to witness a resolute drive towards privatization, this research work will focus mainly on the privates sector of the Nigerian economy.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

A research problem of the type of being investigated in this study is normally recognized when a doubt is raised, difficulty is created or dissatisfaction occurs and a solution imperative. With respect to the study, the statement of the problem of investigation is here under outlined paragraph by paragraph.

Limited scope of coverage and the inadequacy of statements of accounting standard (S.A.S) in the viz – a viz the varying kinds, nature, types and diversity of business operation existing within the Nigerian private sector where such standards are viewed from perspective of the mixed economic system as well as the speed of the industries in the economy.

Failure to disclose relevant information in the financial statement or report for reason of misconnect on the part of the providers and initiators of financial information, faithfully representing the underlying commercial activity of an enterprises and necessary departure from accounting standards in order to present a true and fair view.

 

1.3       Research Question

In the view of the problem enumerated in the statement of the problem section, the following question the following question will be considered

  1. how adequate is the scope of coverage offered by statement of accounting standard in view of the diversity of business operation in the Nigeria private sector?
  2. To what extent are department form S.A.S necessary for corporate financial report to give a true and fair view?
  • Can application of accounting standards ensure that the accounting information provided In the corporate report faithfully present the underlying commercial activity of the activity of the reporting enterprises?
  1. Does compliance with statement of accounting standard (S.A.S) help to ensure that the financial statement give a true and fair view?
  2. Does the (N.A.S.B) have any legal musce to enforce compliance with statement of accounting standards (S.A.S)

 

1.4       Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypotheses have been formulated for the testing o n this research work in order to draw a logical conclusion from the results.

  1. Null hypothesis (ho): in the view of the diversity of business operation in the Nigerian private sector the scope of coverage offered by statement of accounting standards (S.A.S) in adequate

Alternate hypotheses (hi): in the view of the diversity of business operation in the Nigerian private sector, the scope of covariate offered by S.A.S is adequate

  1. Ho: Departures form S.A.S is not necessary for the corporation financial report to give a true and fair view

iii.        Hi:       Departures form S.A.S is necessary for the corporate financial report to give a true and fair view.

 

1.5       Objectives of the Study

The specific aims of this study are also as follows!

  1. finding solution to the problem outlined in the statement of problem outlined the statement of problem
  2. to educate and inform the user of financial reports so that they would be in a better position to appreciate the effect of accounting standard on the preparation of cooperate financial reports.
  • To determine the adequacy of the scope of coverage offered by accounting standard (S.A.S) in the view of the diversity for business operation Land the ever – increasing demand of users of financial information.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The nature of this study entails ascertainment of the effects and impact accounting standard on the quantity relevance and reliability of corporate financial reports produced for user by various reporting enterprises in Nigeria.

 

1.7       Limitation of the Study

This research work will be limited in scope to the private sector in general and not to the public sector, no particular organization will be studied rather, the study will spam a time range of between 1990 and 2003 while covering specifically the geographical are of lagos.

 

1.8       The Significance of the Study

This study intent and purpose will be of immense significance at various user of corporate financial reports  or financial statements, prepare and provider of financial of financial statement, prepare and provider of financial information of firms practicing professional accountants, the standard setting body, auditing firm engaged in the auditing of reporting enterprises, student and lecturer accounting in tertiary institutions, accounting bodies and institutes of chattered accountant of Nigeria (ICAN).

On the part of user of accounting information, the study will:

  1. Enable them to know the extent of reliance that can place on the information supplied in the financial report of the reporting enterprises in which they have as stake.
  2. Enlighten them about the degree of usefulness of the corporate reports a means of carrying out effective intra, inter, and industry comparison  with the respect to other group of beneficiaries of this study, the following are worthy of note.
  3. The providers and preparer of financial information contained in the corporate report will be known the extent of disclosure demanded of them.
  4. The standard setting bloody will become better information about the lapses of issued standards and thereby be able to improve on or reviews the standard more effectively.
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THE ROLE OF TELEVISION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PROMOTING INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE AND CULTURE (A CASE STUDY OF THE BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF OYO STATE (B.C.O.S), IBADAN.

ABSTRACT

This research is about the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture “A case study of the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (B.C.O.S), Ibadan. Survey method was employed for this study while questionnaire was used as an instrument to gather data analysis for the study. One hundred (100) questionnaires returned were administered on the respondents out of the one hundred and thirty (130) questionnaires that were distributed to the selected respondents. Findings in this research shows the way B.C.O.S Television programmes helps to promote indigenous language and culture.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi – vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                           1 – 3

1.2       A brief History of Television Broadcasting in Nigeria                                               3 – 4

1.3       Historical Background of the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State

(B.C.O.S)                                                                                                                    4

1.4       B.C.O.S was Established for the Following Objectives                                             4 – 5

1.5       Statement of the Problem                                                                                           5

1.6       Purpose of the Study                                                                                                  5

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                           6

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                                     6

1.9       Limitations to the Study                                                                                             6

1.10     Research Questions                                                                                                     6 – 7

1.11     Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                 7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       8

2.1       The Role and Effects of Communication                                                                   8

2.2       Television and Development                                                                                      9

2.3       Language and Culture                                                                                                9 – 10

2.4       Language in the Society                                                                                             10

2.5       Nigeria Broadcasting Commission (N B C)                                                               11

2.5.2    The Commission’s Main Functions                                                                             11

2.5.3    The Commission’s Broad Objectives                                                              11 – 12

2.6       Mass Media and Cultural Development                                                                     12

2.7       Television and Indigenous Language                                                                         12 – 13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Methodology                                                                                                              14

3.1       Study Population                                                                                                        14

3.2       Sampling Instrument                                                                                                   14

3.3       Methods of Data Collection                                                                                       14 – 15

3.4       Method of Data Analysis                                                                                           15

3.5       Validity and Reliability                                                                                              15

3.6       Restatement of Research Questions                                                                           15

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data Analysis Presentation                                                                                         16

4.1       Data Analysis                                                                                                              16 – 18

4.2       Analysis of Respondents Responses to the Research                                                 18 – 23

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary                                                                                                                     24

5.1       Suggestions                                                                                                                 24

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  24 – 25

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                        25

References                                                                                                                  26

Appendix I                                                                                                                  27

Appendix II                                                                                                                28 – 29

 

CHAPTER ONE


1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The mass media play a key role in shaping the social and political
process of a nation. They provide access to informations through public opinions ailed and giving chances to people to make decision of an interested issues.

Mass media are all those media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience by mass communication. Broadcasting media (also known as electronic media) transmit their information electronically and comprises of television, radio, film movies, CDs, DVDs and other devices such as cameras and video consoles e.t.c.

Alternatively, print media use a physical object as a means of sending their information such as newspaper, magazines, comics books brochures, newsletters and pamphlets. The organization that control these technologies such as television stations or publishing companies are also known as the mass media.

More so, we have the internet media which most people also refers to as a (social media) is able to achieve mass media status in its own right due to the many media services it provides, such as facebook, email, websites, blogging, 2go etc. for this reasons, many mass media outlets have a presence on the web, by such things as having TV ads that link to a website, or having games in their sites to entice gamers to visit their website. In this way, they can utilize the easy accessibility that the internet has and the outreach that internet affords, as information can easily be broadcasted to many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost efficiently. Outdoor media is a form                    

Television as a single medium is been as having a leadership role to play in the development of a country. Its power of immediacy and concretization gives it a greater credibility ahead of other media.

Television broadcasting involves simultaneous transmission of Sound and pictures and are transmitted in motion. The television which helps to extend our senses of vision and hearing has also helps to change the altitude and behviour of people (influenced by television portrayals) whereby causing people to acquire new ways of life. These portrayals can be positive and purposeful will help to promote indigenous language and culture.

Language

Language is perceived to be the cognitive faculty that enables humans to learn and use system of complex communication.

Language, in its simplest form, is a system of artificial signs and it separate words or signs bear no likeness to the things they signify and no meaning except those that we give to them arbitrarily meanings are assigned to words based on the ideas we have for them . The words we hear will be meaningless without an image in mind. Also, language often expresses  peoples culture, which is always different from that of other people in many respects.

Indigenous language 

Indigenous language which is also referred to as an autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous peoples.

Dr. Victoria Okoronkwo, who expressed the concern in an interview with Thisday, said studies have shown that 60% of most Nigerian profound dialect speakers are above the age of 50.

The number of languages estimated and catalogued in Nigeria is 520, this number includes 510 living language, two second languages without native speakers and 9 extinct languages spoken in Nigeria are Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo, Fulfulde, Kauri and Ibibio.

This language would be from a linguistically district community that has been settled in the area for many generations.

Many indigenous languages have fallen out of use because of language death, language extinction or linguicide, which is a process that is said to affect speech communities where the level of linguistic competence that speakers posses of a given language variety is decreased, eventually resulting in no native or fluent speakers of the variety.

Language death may affect any language idiom including dialects and other languages.

Culture

Culture, according to Nabofa (1988), includes the way people behave. It comprises his they do as that complex whole which include knowledge, beliefs arts, morals customs and all other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.

Whatever a person exposes himself to in terms of knowledge he acquires and information he imbibed has a way of life.

However as the western culture permeates the African society, the African culture is fast becoming absolute and this of course, forms the basis of the problem which the study seeks to address, which to examine if and how the television medium employs indigenous language and culture to rejuvenate the receding African culture.

The African culture is definitely losing its ground, as African Values goes into obscurity and if nothing is done to reawaken it,Western culture will perpetually dominate the African society.

The question that needs to be asked therefore is whether the television medium as an agent of communication,should behold programmes and whether they are African cultural heritage.

 

1.2       A BRIEF HISTORY OF TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA.

Broadcasting was introduced to Nigeria in 1932 and the
Nigerian Broadcasting service was established in 1957: on the last day of October, 1959, the first television station in’ Black Africa was officially commissioned. The Western Nigeria Television. (WNTU) based in Ibadan, Nigeria.

At its opening, the premier of the Nigerian region, Chief Obafemi Awolowo said that the venture was started because the regional government was convinced that it could play a major role in increasing both the pace and standard of education which was regarded as the key to progress in all other fields.

The station was also expected to bring information about Nigeria and the outside world into the peoples home, so that they might benefit from the knowledge. Television was meant to serve as a teacher and an entertainer, and a stimulus to all, to transform Nigeria into a modern and prosperous nation.

As years went by, more station were established in other parts of the country. In western Nigeria, Broadcasting Corporation began on October, 1960, and in Northern Nigeria, the Broadcasting Corporation was responsible for radio and television broadcasting, other regional stations grew from these three until December 1975 when the federal military government announced its intention to regulates and assume responsibility for colour television network in Nigeria.

The take over of all television stations in the country gave birth to the Nigerian Television authority (NTA).A corporate body changed with the
responsibility of providing an independent and imparted television broadcasting for general reception within the country” (IKIME 1979).

 

1.3       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE BROADCASTING CORPORATION OF OYO STATE (B.C.O.S).

The colonial, masters, Britain, Introduced broadcasting into Nigeria in 1932. The western region, before independence, had gone into regional broadcasting by establishing the western Nigeria broadcasting corporation (W.N.B.C) to offer both radio and television services in 1953.

In 1976, when the creation of states took place in the country and three states were served out of western region namely: Oyo, Ogun, and Ondo.The Core of broadcasting remained in Ibadan, the Oyo state capital which was the then capital of western state, also, in 1991 when another state Osun, was created out of the old Oyo state, Ibadan still remained as the pace-setter in broadcasting in Nigeria.

It is clear from what has been said thus for that, Oyo State has been into electronic media broadcasting since even Nigerians independence in 1960. The state runs both the Radio and television station which resulted in three channels — Radio I on medium wave bond (MW), radio 2 on frequently modulation (FM) stereo and television service of Oyo State (T.S.O.S) established in. 1976 and 1982 respectively operated independently under separate management until 1984 when a manager came. The manager gave birth to the corporate entity now as the Broadcasting Corporation of State (B.C.O.S) comprising BCOS television, Radio (AM) and radio (FM) under a single management.

 

1.3       BCOS WAS ESTABLISHED FOR THE FOLLOWING OBJECTIVES

  1. To provide television and radio broadcasting services as public services as public services for dissemination of information, education and entertainment.
  2. To secure coverage and long reach for the programmes broadcast by radio and

television services which are in compliance with the general standard of social ethnics and good tastes.

  1. To make sponsorship and advertisement priority for the benefit of producers of goods and services and philanthropists.
  2. To prescribe the advertisements and methods of advertising to be prohibited in

particular circumstances by drawing and from time to time reviewing a code governing standards and practice advertising.

  1. To ensure accurate impartial objectives and balance news.
    6. To maintain balance in political industrial and religious matters.

 

1.4       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The African culture is a rich one. However, it is fast receding into obscurity because of cultural invasion by the west. This informs the problem which this study seeks to address which is if the television rnedia can rejuvenate the receding African culture through indigenous language and cultural based programming considering,the fact that a person’s habit can be formed and his behaviour influenced based on what he is exposed to in terms of the knowledge acquired and the information imbibed.

Furthermore, the television as a single medium, due to its power c immediacy and concretization appears to have greater ability than any other medium today. Hence, it is viewed as having a leadership role to play in the progressive development of the nation.

 

1.5       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study aims to look at how effective the television has been promoting indigenous language and culture in the African society. This research work will critically aim at studying the roles and effectiveness of the B.C.O.S. television Ibadan in promoting indigenous language and culture. And if the station has not succeeded in achieving the goal of promoting indigenous language and culture in Ibadan an attempt will be made to know why, and useful suggestion will be offered to enable the station to improve upon the broadcast contents that could achieve this purpose.
1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

At the end of this study, the result of this research will help the station to know the extent the contents of its programmes help in promoting indigenous language and culture and the perception of its audience.

The study will be getting them know, if they are really doing well as agent of language and culture. It will also benefit the general public to enable them know more about their cultural heritage through indigenous language and cultural based programmes. It is also hoped that, it will create promise for further studies.

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will be limited to only one broadcasting corporation in Ibadan. Oyo state,that is the Broadcasting Corporation of Oyo State (B.C.O.S) and also viewers of B.C.O.S. Although Yoruba language is the indigenous language of the state and it is actively used by the state, its populated by people of ethnic diversity also the station has a large heterogeneous audience.

 

1.8       LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

            This study is limited to the role of television as an instrument of promoting indigenous language and culture.

The major limitations to this project are:-

  • Time constraints:- much time is not given in for the proper writing and gathering of the project work.
  • Liability to get the required materials in bulk. The project materials are not much available at once for. Proper gathering and writing of the project.
  • Financial constraint:- the money spent during the project as been so lenty for one to get more informations about the project from where money is been required.

 

1.9       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. To what extent can B.C.O.S television be regarded as promoter of indigenous language and culture?
  2. In what ways does the B.C.O.S television promote indigenous language and culture?
  3. How can Nigeria television be repositioned to better promote the African culture?
  4. What are the problems encountered by the B.C.O.S television Ibadan in an attempt to promote indigenous language and culture?
  5. Which of the following programmes aired on B.C.O.S television helps to promote indigenous. Language and culture?
  6. Drama
  7. Sports

iii.        Entertainment

  1. News and current affairs

1.10     OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

INDIGENOUS LANGUAGE: Indigenous language which is also called autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, but has been reduced to the status of a minority language.

CULTURE: Culture in its simplest meaning is said to be the complex whole which include knowledge, benefits, arts, morals, customs and all other capabilities and habits acquire by a man as a member of a nation country or society.

MASS MEDIA: The mass media can be refers to all those media technologies that are intended to reach large audience by mass communication. Also, It can be refers to as the means of communication that reach large numbers of people in a short time, such as television newspapers, magazines and radio.

TELEVISION: Television is said to be a system for transmitting visual images with sound and displaying them electronically on a screen.

 

AUDIENCE EVALUATION OF NIGERIA ADVERTISEMENT (A CASE STUDY OF INDOMIE NOODLES PLC)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi – vii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                           1 -2

1.2       Problem Statement                                                                                                      2

1.3       Objective to the Study                                                                                                            2

1.4       Research Question                                                                                                      2

1.5       Significance of the Study                                                                                           3

1.6       Scope of the Study                                                                                                     3

1.7       Definition of Terms                                                                                                    3 – 4

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       5

2.1       Definition of Advertising                                                                                           5 – 6

2.2       Evolution of Advertisement in Nigeria                                                                      6

2.3       Types of Advertising                                                                                                  6 – 7

2.3.1    Advertising Using Infomercials                                                                                  7

2.4       Functions/Purpose of Advertising                                                                              8

2.5       Modern Technique in Advertising                                                                              9

2.5.1    Definition of Advertising Media                                                                                9

2.6       Indomie Plc Company’s Name                                                                                   9 – 11

2.7       Impact of Indomie Noodles to Nigeria Economy                                                      11

2.8       The Impact of Indomie Advert on Product                                                                11 – 12

2.9       Public Perception Problem of Advertising                                                                 12

2.10     Theoretical Framework                                                                                               12 – 13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                               14

3.1       Study Population                                                                                                        14

3.2       Simple Size                                                                                                                 14

3.3       Simple Technique                                                                                                        14

3.4       Data Collection Instrument                                                                                        14 – 15

3.5       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument                                                        15

3.6       Data Collection Process                                                                                              15

3.7       Data Analysis                                                                                                              15

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Analysis 16

4.1      Data Presentation                                                                                                        16 – 24

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                    

  • Summary, Conclusion, Recommendation and Suggestion

for Further Studies                                                                                                      25

5.1       Summary                                                                                                                     25

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  25 – 26

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                        26

5.4       Suggestion for Further Studies                                                                                   26 – 27

Bibliography                                                                                                               28

Questionnaire                                                                                                              29 – 31

 

 

 

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       Introduction

            Advertising includes advertising performed by Nigeria. Apart from advertising address to customers, this category may also include business reports, information brochures of announcements on payment of new product, reports on investment program results and several other sales announcements {information}.

The first type contains dominant psychological message, while the latter involves factual or logically verifiable messages, in order to impact the company product and service to current, non-current and potential customers.

The selection of advertisement means depend on a the company targets group. Most company address their advertising to holders of small ways and this advertise their product and service through the mass media. The press and television are the preferred means for larger company that have branches across the country. Advertisement on investment programs usually appear in almost all the circulation newspaper as they are addressed to small investors. Many company rent space in several exhibition and print information brochures to describe their activities and service.

1.1       Background to the Study

Normally the general public today believes that for a business organization or enterprises to survive, make profit and even achieve its aim and objective advertisement.

However, this system is needed by profit making organization to make their products and services popular and known to the people so that majority of the people can be turned to customers.

Advertising, in this case can be simply be defined or said to be the publishing of a particular product or services of a business organization in order to gain the heart of the customers with the aim of making profit. Advertisement of the bank improve the economic development of a country. Therefore, advertising is an important aspect of business formation and growth. It even determines the survival of a bank or an establishment.  After a careful analysis, to think about the quality of the company product need with references to the taste of customers.

In order not to deviate from the original intention and motive, the following were therefore outline the objectives which is intends to achieve.

1.2       Problem Statement

A critical look most individuals in the word today do not believes in advertisement as a promotional tools of making profit in business organization. This is an result of the fact they believe advertising is just to show case of product to entire public in order to make profit. But it is unfortunate that even large establishment still lack the mentally of getting their product advertised, instead, they only engage their product in sales promotion which will definite find out within as short time. An adage says that “free things are inferior” tat is to say they are not valuable by the customers. Let’s take on problems face by the industries.

1.3       Objective to the Study

            Basically, the only purpose of advertising is to sell some company product, services or an idea in other words, the real goal of advertising is should to be describe the attitude and behaviuor of the of the receive of the message.

  1. To access whether the audience perceive adverts of indomie noodles.
  2. To identify the major merits and demerits of advertising of indomie noodles plc on audience.
  • To know the extent which Advertisement affect the effectiveness of business transaction in indomie noodles plc?

1.4       Research Question

The research questions used are as follow:

  1. To what extent does the audience perceive adverts of indomie noodles?
  2. What are the major merit and demerit of advertisement of indomie noodles on the audience?
  • To what extent does advertisement affect the effectiveness of businesses in transaction in indomie noodles plc?

 

1.5       Significance of the Study

At the conclusion of the study, audience evaluation of Nigeria advertisement would be known and would prove informative to business owners and managers in determining whether to continue advertising or stop, increase advertising budget or cut down it. Yet, more that all these, a more frontal aim is to help business determine how much equity should be used in advertising.

Also, business will get more understanding on how to manipulate the advertising element, provided the availability of relevant information and know who are available.

Therefore, this study is carried out to see if business function below their optimum capacities and it engages in avoidable waste of capital. This would be as a result of lack of adequate and concise information as regards advertising and its corresponding uses and advantage as well as corresponding response to it.

1.6       Scope of the Study 

The scope of this research is clearly defined in the research topic and that is why the researcher is essentially interested in finding out the role which advertisement has played in evaluating the indomie noodles company plc. Therefore the generalization of the result will not be affected.

1.7       Definition of Term

Some basis term used in the particular research project include the followings;

  1. Advertising:- This is the any means aimed at persuading member of the

public to procure, purchase or particular product or services of indomie noodle plc.

  1. Consumer:- This is the person to which the advertisement and products/services indomie noodlles are directed.

iii         Media on Indomie Noodles plc :- As an act of Longman. Dictionary of

contemporary English. As all the organization such as television, radio and the newspaper that provide information for the public.

  1. Market: This is usually the strategic location or place where the company’s

consumer/buyers are situated or where they go to buy the products/services indomie noodle of their choice. The market place offers different products/services to different consumers.

  1. Producer: This is the organization or firm that provides indomie noodles delivery

services for consumer consumption.

  1. Sales: This is a process of selling something such as a indomie noodles product,

ideas or services. It also covers the number of goods or services sold at a given point in time.

THE EFFECT OF GRAPHICS ON THE PRINT MEDIA (A case study of Osun Defender)

Abstract

The study examined the Effect of Graphics on the Print Media using Osun Defender newspaper as a case study. However, it is obvious that photographs place a very prominent role in newspaper and the world of print media in general. It communicates messages even to the illiterates. A newspaper without the use of photograph will be noting but look like a letter or text book and such publication cannot interest readers. Also, photographs draw the attention of the reader to the most prominent news and issue especially when placed at the front page of a newspaper while placement also used to set agenda on what public will debate upon that day. In fact the headline scanners and photo scanner always find it easy to know the most important news of the day. Without messing word, photographs communication message than what a thousand words can tell. For the purpose of this work the researcher employed the use of Survey method along side the use of questionnaire.

 

Table of Contents

Title                                                                                                   i

Certification                                                                                                 ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv-v

Table of contents                                                                               vi-vii

Abstract                                                                                             viii

Chapter One

1.0     Introduction                                                                            1

1.1     Background to the Study                                                        1

1.2     Statement of the Problem                                                        1-2

1.3     Research Questions                                                                 2

1.4     Objectives of the Study                                                            2

1.5     Significance of the Study                                                         3

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                                   3

1.7     Limitation to the Study                                                           4

1.8     Definition of the Terms                                                            5

Chapter Two

2.0     Literature Review                                                                     6

2.1     Concept of Print Media                                                            6-7

2.2     History of the Print Media in Nigeria                                                 7-8

2.3     Functions of the Mass media                                                   8-9

2.4     Concept of Graphics                                                                9

2.5     Origin of Graphics                                                                             10

2.6     Types of Graphics in Newspaper                                              10

2.7     Photojournalism                                                                      10

2.8     History – What is Photography?                                               11

2.9     Photography in Communication                                              12

2.10   Computer Graphics and Newspaper                               13-14

2.11   Role of Graphics in Print Media                                     14-15

2.11   Theoretical Framework                                                   16-17

Chapter Three

3.0     Research Methodology                                                   18

3.1     Restatement of the Research Questions                         18

3.2     Research Design                                                            18

3.3     Study Population                                                           18

3.4     Sample Size                                                                             18

35      Data Collection Instrument                                            19

3.6     Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument             19

3.7     Data Collection Process                                                  19

3.8     Data Analysis                                                                 19

Chapter Four

4.0     Data Analysis and Discussion of Findings                     20

4.1     Data Analysis                                                                 21-27

Chapter Five

5.0     Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations             28

5.1     Summary                                                                      28

5.2      Conclusion                                                                    29

5.3      Recommendations                                                         29

Bibliography

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Graphics especially photographs at glance trap the readers. If a photo is interesting enough, the reader will stop to it and read the caption and if the interest stays there the title of the article is read next. If the beginning of the article is catching enough the reader will read all of it. In conclusion only few of readers read an article but almost all the photos get noticed. Photos are of primary importance when selling magazine. The photos are actually magazine marketing.

Print media are over the years compete and struggling to survive. One basic tactic newspapers and magazines have often used to put message across.           Photographs are used extensively by newspapers and magazines to convey information and advertise products and services. Practical application of photography is found in nearly every human endeavor from astronomy to medical diagnosis to industrial quality control. Photography extends human vision into the realm of objects that are invisible because they are too small or too distant, or events that occur too rapidly for the naked eye to detect. A camera can be used in locations too dangerous for humans. Photographs can also be objects of art that explore the human condition and provide aesthetic pleasure. For millions of people, photography is a satisfying hobby or a rewarding career.

The public wants to spend more time with pictures than text, and the immediacy and availability of photography makes that possible. Consumers want a photo with every story they read, but that it can cause strong emotions

since a photograph can tell an entire story.

 

 

 

Photojournalism

Photo journalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication) that creates images in order to tell a news story. It is now usually understood to refer only to still images, but in some cases the term also refers to video used in broadcast journalism. Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (e.g., documentary photography, social documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by complying with a rigid ethical framework which demands that the work is both honest and impartial whilst telling the story in strictly journalistic terms. Photojournalists create pictures that contribute to the news media.

  • Timeliness — The images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events.
  • Objectivity — The situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone.
  • Narrative — The images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level.

Like a writer, a photojournalist is a reporter but he or she must often make decisions instantly and carry photographic equipment, often while exposed to significant obstacles (e.g., physical danger, weather, crowds).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

There is no doubt about the fact that graphics especially photographs take two dimensions in newspaper either tell the story in all (Stand Alone Photo) or to complement story. It is important to realize that for information or photographs to have any substantial impact, influence and effect on the readers.

Despite the fact that photojournalists are using their camera to tell stories by bringing the source of the events closest to their readers, yet it needs to be interpreted most of the time even the STAND ALONE PHOTO need some wording to accompany it, called caption. However, a good photograph without caption may mean little or no meaning to some reader.

Therefore, in this research efforts shall be made on how photographs can provide message either with or without caption in reporting events.

1.3 Research Questions

  • To what extent does photograph tell the story?
  • To what extent do photojournalists use their camera to tell stories?
  • To what extent does newspaper houses use photograph in reporting an events?
  • Do readers find photograph interesting?
  • To what extent does photograph capture and retain the attention of

newspaper readers?

  • To what extent does headlines and photo scanners find photograph interesting and holding the people’s attention?

1.4 Objectives of the Study

  • To examine whether photographs tell story?
  • To examine the extent which photojournalists use their camera to tell

stories?

  • To know how newspaper houses use photograph in reporting an event?
  • To know if readers find photograph interesting?
  • To know how photograph capture and retain the attention of newspaper

readers?

  • To know how headlines and photo scanners find photograph interesting

and holding their attention?

 

 

 

 

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

Journalists: The significant of this study aims at revealing to the media practitioners on the benefit of photograph to readers. It will assist the media practitioners to know their role in keeping public informed through their camera.

Students: students of mass communication and other related field will know

the role of photographs in newspaper production.

Researchers: It will further enable other researchers to continue from the aspect which this study has not covered.

 

1.6 Scope of the Study

The primary objective of the project is to examine the role of graphics (photographs) in newspaper reporting and production . This topic itself has limited the scope of this study through the use of Osun Defender Newspaper as a case study.

 

1.7 Limitation to the Study

Wide research of this nature cannot be carried out without some constrains, this constrains pose a lot of limitations to this work.

Time: Duration for the research work is i ative1y short while stress emanated from other academic activities is also another constrain.

Material: Little materials are also available because the work is relatively new.

Financial: Financial constrain poses another challenges as most of information are gathered through newspapers

 

 

 

 

 

1.8 Definition of the Terms

Newspaper: This is written form of disseminating information to the masses such as which contains articles, news photo, advert and other form of opinions usually printed daily for the public consumption.

Graphic Communication: As the name suggests is communication through graphics and graphical aids. It is the 1iocess of creating, producing, and distributing material incorporating words wd images to convey news, message, data, concepts, and especially in newspaper.

Photographs: Photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic image such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.

THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDIA A CASE STUDY OF THE PUNCH NEWSPAPER, LAGOS.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                           i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                           iv

Table of content                                                                               v

 

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • Background to the study
  • History of the punch newspaper
  • Statement of research problem
  • Research questions
  • Purpose of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Delimitation of the study
  • Limitation of the study
  • Operational definition of terms

 

Chapter Two

  • Literature review

2.1       Definitions of advertising

2.2       Public service advertising

2.3       Kinds of advertising

2.4       Marketing mix

2.5       Types of advertising

2.6       Importance of advertising

2.7       Benefits of advertising

2.8       Objectives and functions of advertising

2.9       Advertising agency

2.10    Advertising media

2.11    Conditions for effective advertising

2.12    The advertising budget

2.13    Legal aspect of advertising

2.14    Advertising media planning

2.15    Mass media

2.16    Theoretical framework

 

Chapter Three

3.1       Research methodology

3.2       Research design

3.3       Identification of study population

3.4       Sampling design and procedure

3.5       Research instrument

3.6       Restatement of research questions

3.7       Method of data collected

3.8       Rate of return of questionnaire

3.9       Method of data analysis

3.10    Sample size

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Data analysis and presentation of findings

4.1       Data analysis

4.2       Research data analysis

4.3       Discussion of findings

 

Chapter Five

5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendix

 

THE EFFECT OF MEDIA CREDIBILITY ON NEWS CONSUMPTION AMONG CIVIL SERVANTS IN OSOGBO

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study are to find out the effect of media credibility on news consumption among the civil servants in Osogbo. This project is divided into five chapter. Chapter one dealt with the introduction to the background of the study, historical background of the study, statement of the problem, research question, objective of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the and definition of the terms. Chapter two consists of literature review. Chapter three consist of research question, population of the study, sample size, sampling design and procedure, data collection, administration of data instrument, data technique, rate of return questionnaire. Chapter four consist of data presentation and interpretation and finally the last chapter consist of summary, recommendation, and conclusion.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi – vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background to the study                                                                                1 – 2

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                               2 – 3

1.3       Research questions                                                                                          3

1.4       Objective of the study                                                                                    3

1.5       Significant of the study                                                                                  3 – 4

1.6       Scope of the study                                                                                          4

1.7       Limitation of the study                                                                                   4

1.8       Historical background of the study                                                                4 – 5

1.9       Definition of terns                                                                                          5

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review                                                                                             6

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                    6 – 7

2.1       Electronic Media                                                                                             7 – 8

2.2       The print media                                                                                               9 – 10

2.3       The media credibility                                                                                      11 – 20

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology                                                                                   21

3.0       Introduction                                                                                                    21

3.1       Research design                                                                                              21

3.2       Re-statement of research question                                                                   21

3.3       Population of the study                                                                                  22

3.4       Sample size                                                                                                     22

3.5       Sampling design and procedure                                                                      22

3.6       Data collection Instrument                                                                             22

3.7       Administration of data collection instrument                                                 22

3.8       Data Analysis Techniques                                                                               22

3.9       Validity and Reliability of research instrument                                              23

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of data                                               24

4.1       Data presentation                                                                                            24 – 28

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         29

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            29 – 29

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                      30

Questionnaire                                                                                                  31 – 32

Reference                                                                                                        33

 

THE ROLE OF MASS MEDIA TOWARDS THE ERADICATION OF CHILD TRAFFICKING IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF KWARA STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Media has turned the world into a global village. It is prominent tool and a best means of one way communication. So, it’s being widely used for everything and for any purpose.

It has been playing a significant role in most of all social, political and development sectors due to its power to influence on attitude and behaviour of general public and its outstanding role to design planned and policy on national and international level.

Offer the re-advent of democracy in Nepal, the uses of media are intense in every aspect of social, political and economic development.

Similarly, media is also playing a major role in promotion of children development.

The term mass media defined it as a means of communication that operate on a large scale reaching and involving virtually everyone in a society to a great or lesser degree.

Mass coverage on a child labour and abuse cannot be over looked. The term “Child Labour|” simply refers to hazardous work that is being given to children who falls between the ages of 15 to 17 years old as a result of poor family background. While, child abuse on the other hand can be seen as a neglecting, denying or not providing for a child needs.

It is very cumbersome to trace precisely where child labour started. But, it is assumed that it has come into being when Igba Mesin was sold slavery as a bonded for $ 16.00 at the age of four (4) years and shacked to a carpet loan to make carpet he escaped when he was ten (10) years and was murdered at the age of twelve (12) years.

  1. To create a greater awareness of child labour and the exploitation of children through educational campaigns
  2. Raising funds for abused and exploited children
  • Collaborating with youth around the world to help bring changes
  1. Convincing world leaders that education and projection of children are priority concerns.

The organization free the children has sign grown into an influential international children’s movement in which young people all over the world speak at school and conference to educators, union groups and government bodies on behalf of youth. Craig in himself has traveled all over the world, most recently to Brazil. There he organized mass media coverage of the plight of exploited children.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A lot of children across the world are being faced with this silly and maltreatment. A question on how to wipe away this undesirable act, now become a topic of discussion in our society and as well as government offices. But, how harmful is this child labour to the society. Is it part of home training?

Well, it is believed that children who are involved in this act have negative impact to the society more than the merits. It makes the affected children to automatically frustrated, discouraged and eventually be neglected in the society. It brings about the retrogressive of a nation’s economy instead of moving forward a better future.

 

1.3       RESEACH QUESTIONS

This segment of a research project is interesting as it offers the researcher the opportunity to ask and or present question that are relevant and related to the subject matter. One cannot imagine why child labour and abuse has then become a matter of concern that should be severely dealt with.

At this point, let us make a look at the following questions in other to enable us capture the researcher’s intention towards this act.

  1. What are the steps taken by the government to eradicate child labour and abuse?
  2. Does the society or the government support Child Trafficking Act?
  • Does trafficking of people have negative impact on the victims?
  1. What are the causes of child labour and abuse?
  2. Who are the people to be held responsible for the act of child trafficking?
  3. How can we prevent or control child labour and abuse?
  • Are the victims to be blame?
  • Is it possible to eradicate child labour and abuse in general?

The above mentioned questions represent the researcher’s feelings towards this topic. If these questions are properly answered with adequate steps being in order to solve the above mentioned problems which are the subject matter child labour and exploitation of workers will be stop in the third world.

 

1.4       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

There is no research work that will be completed without achieving the researcher’s aims and objectives base on the subject matters. Therefore, this segment has played an important role in this chapter one as it aids the reader to the researcher’s target goals at the end of this work.

It has become obvious that child labour has dwindled our society as it has contributed to the increase rate of criminals, smokers, drug addict and so on among teenagers in our societies.

This research project is aimed at eliminating this act within our societies. Furthermore, the dangers being exposed in the cause of the research based on the subject matters will automatically discourage further occurrence.

More also, this research objective is to encourage our leaders to take absolute care of the less privilege in the society.

It is also aimed at providing the children with their desires and also to give them access to their right no matter the family background.

 

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The extent of the coverage of the subject matter being investigative here cannot be over looked. The research has devoted his time and energy in consulting relevant material that could lead to or bring out a tangible result at the end of this work. She engage herself in a sleepless night and day reading all sort of books, visiting internet for research, condition upon and close interview with different set of people and even tae much of her time to mingle with the victims for a better result.

More so, the researcher has laid hands on important reference material that will enable her to provide or give details to the background of child labour.

All acquisition skill and self experience are also employed in the course of study.

 

1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The only limitation that the researcher encountered is the inability to gain access to a particular reference materials that will give accurate account on what year the country and the exactly per that started or bring about the child labour abuse on this earth.

 

1.7       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study of child labour and abuse is very important as it exposes us to the danger and the negative implications which it has in our society. Maltreatment or neglect of children often leads to a great destruction of societal norms and values as the victims happens to grow up without any form of home training and parental care. They find it very difficult to do anything that will have positive impact to the society in which they belong.

This research project is very significance as it will aid in building a strong and solid foundation for children with maximum security and sense of belonging irrespective of their family background.

More so, it will help immensely in putting an end to this nasty and unwanted act as it discloses the danger, causes, control and or a way forward in fighting against child labour, abuse and even child trafficking.

 

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. Mass Media: According to the Cambridge Encyclopedia (1999) the term, mass media is the means of providing and disseminating News, information and entertainment to a universal audience typically through the press (News Papers, Magazines, Cinemas, Radio, Television, and even paper black publishing).
  2. Child Labour: This refers to all kind of harmful works that put children’s life at risk or keep them away from school.

iii.        Child Abuse: Child abuse simply means the physical, sexual, emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians or relative.

  1. Labour: labour can be seen as both physical and mental skills that are used in production process usually for reward.
  2. Abuse: According to Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary 6th Editions; defined the term abuse as an act of using something in a way that wrong or harmful.

THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MEDIA (A CASE STUDY OF THE PUNCH AND THE NATION NEWSPAPER, LAGOS)

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v

 

Chapter One

  • Introduction
  • Background to the study
  • History of the punch newspaper
  • Statement of research problem
  • Research questions
  • Purpose of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Delimitation of the study
  • Limitation of the study
  • Operational definition of terms

 

Chapter Two

  • Literature review

2.1       Definitions of advertising

2.2       Public service advertising

2.3       Kinds of advertising

2.4       Marketing mix

2.5       Types of advertising

2.6       Importance of advertising

2.7       Benefits of advertising

2.8       Objectives and functions of advertising

2.9       Advertising agency

2.10     Advertising media

2.11     Conditions for effective advertising

2.12     The advertising budget

2.13     Legal aspect of advertising

2.14     Advertising media planning

2.15     Mass media

2.16     Theoretical framework

 

Chapter Three

3.1       Research methodology

3.2       Research design

3.3       Identification of study population

3.4       Sampling design and procedure

3.5       Research instrument

3.6       Restatement of research questions

3.7       Method of data collected

3.8       Rate of return of questionnaire

3.9       Method of data analysis

3.10     Sample size

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Data analysis and presentation of findings

4.1       Data analysis

4.2       Research data analysis

4.3       Discussion of findings

 

Chapter Five

5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

Bibliography

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The attitude of people towards promotion differs. Some people are of the opinion that promotional activities particularly advertising paints a distorted picture of reality because it provides the consumer with only the selected information about the product or service. In view of this, repetition of similar themes in advertising has brought changes in social value such as materialism among others.

Advertising brings about promotions which act as a medium of communication with individuals, groups or organization with the aim of facilitating exchange by informing and persuading the audience to accept the firm’s product or service.

However, the relevance of advertising to the department cannot be over emphasized. Advertising is one of the essential elements used for promotion of activities in an organization with other components like personal selling, sales promotion. Public relations and publicity act to accomplish their goals.

It is also a truly exciting challenge to misunderstand advertising and its importance to business organizations. In other words, advertising is preoccupied with purpose of giving information about products, services and to show its importance and its quality.

Most Nigerians are exposed to different products through advertisement on radio, television; newspaper etc this then serves as a source of communication to consumers or customers which also helps in the selling of goods and services through persuasion and dissemination of information. In fact, advertising is regarded as one of the materials or mechanism used by the media to call the attention of the public to a particular product or services. That is, when an industry is located in a particular area, advertising serves as a tool of development for the organization.

In brief, what we shall be examining is how the media makes use of their style of advertising in achieving the organizational goals with reference to the Punch Newspaper.


1.2       HISTORY OF THE PUNCH NEWSPAPER

The punch is a Nigerian daily Newspaper. It is second largest newspaper in the country in terms of circulation with 80,000 copies published daily in 1999.

The Punch Newspaper was founded by two friends, James Aboderm, an accountant and Sam Amuka, a columnist and editor at the Daily times. Sam Amuka became the first editor of Sunday Punch. In November, 1976, a few years after the first print of its Sunday Edition, the duo started printing its trademark daily newspaper. Both editions were designed to favour a friendlier approach to news reporting, combining footages of social events with everyday political news. The paper sustain itself by delving into broad issues that interest a myriad of people.

However, during the twilight of the second Republic exigencies had introduced conflicts to it original intention. Aboderm and Amuka parted ways due partly to political conflicts. Aboderin later secured the supports of its former foe, Mko Abiola after the later left the NPN. The paper began to take on a political stance mostly against the Shagari regime.

The Punch has been growing from strength to strength despite surreptions tendency of limitation of the study.

 

1.3       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE NATION NEWSPAPER

The Nation is a daily newspaper published in Lagos, Nigeria. According to a 2009 survey it was the second most read newspaper in Nigeria. The paper’s website says it stands for Freedom, Justice and the Market Economy. Its target audience is the business and political elite, the affluent, the educated and the upwardly mobile. The Nation has printing plants in Lagos, Abuja and Port Harcourt. The newspaper covers business and economy, public policies, the democratic process and institutions of democracy, sports, arts and culture.

In April 2010 Edo Ugbagwu, a reporter who covered court cases for The Nation, was killed by gunmen. The reason was not known.

 


1.3       STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

There is a cogent reason for researching into any subject. In most cases, the reason could be to discover problems and therefore suggest a pragmatic solution to it. Therefore the purpose of this study is to investigate into the impact of advertising on the development of the media.

It is also to examine and know what would be the outcome of the media if peradventure advertisement were not placed on it. The question then is this, what are the impacts of advertising on the development of the media? This in a nutshell is the problem, which this study seeks to investigate.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  1. Is advertising relevant to the growth of the Punch and the Nation newspaper?
  2. Does the Punch and the Nation newspaper have good advertising strategies that attract advertisement?
  3. To what extent has advertising influenced more customers to punch and the Nation newspaper?
  4. How often has advertising helped the development of the Punch and the Nation newspaper?
  5. Does the advertisements published by the Punch and the Nation, contributed to the organization’s economics survival?

 

1.5      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

Having discovered that only programmes on radio and television are normally sandwiched between the programmes and commercials, likewise newspapers and magazine normally earmark a target position of several columns for advertisements Thus, the primary objective of this work is to beam a search light on the media and to know how important advertising is to it.

Secondly, it is to examine the reasons for placement of advertisements in the media and its effect on the readership of the organization.

Thirdly, it is to know about what it readily entails to advertise in the print media viz; the price charges, the system of payment and what follows.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This project would aid the development of media with reference to the punch and the Nation newspaper and how they disseminates information to the consumers and general public about the product or service, so that people will be able to purchase goods and services.

This study will also improve knowledge in the area of advertising. This study will create employment opportunity to employ more staff.

Also, the study would make all current media houses set their eye on all factors that are capable of affecting advertising. It will also help the advertisers (i.e. client) to also know the best medium suitable for their kind of advertisement.

 

1.7       LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The likely problems to be encountered in the course of investigating into this research work are:-

  1. Lack of adequate finance to do a thorough investigation on the research problem
  2. Lack of sufficient time.
  3. Unreliable data from respondents.

 

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Advertising: – Advertising is a professional field of study and practice concerned with various activities in the areas of research, planning setting of informative or persuasive message or both about a product, idea, service, individual or organization; the placement of such messages in appropriate or selected non-personal media of communication for consumption by pre-determined publics of an identified sponsor (s) and further research into the advertising effort.

Development: – According to the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2006), Development is the gradual growth of something so that it becomes more advanced and stronger.

Impact: – According to the Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2006), Impact is the powerful effect that something has on somebody or something.

Media: – The media are various channels through which information is being passed or disseminated to a mass audience. Such medium are Radio, Television, Magazines, and Newspaper etc.

Marketing: – According to American Marketing Association (1972) “Marketing is concerned with the people and the activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the producer to consumer”. It can also the management process responsible for identifying anticipating and satisfying consumer/consumer requirement profitability.

Marketing is overall term covering product conception, planning, production and distribution through promotion, designed to stimulate consumption.

It is however important to note that advertising is a special form of marketing communication.

Personal Selling: – Personal selling is a face to face communication with one or more persons with the intent of making an immediate sales or development of a long term relationship that will eventually result in sales. The main aim of personal sales is to increase profitable, persuasion and by offering satisfaction to the market and even at the doorstep of the consumers/customers.

IMPACT OF ON-LINE NEWSPAPER ON THE READERSHIP OF NEWSPAPER HARD-COPIES (A CASE STUDY OF STUDENTS OF OSUN STATE POLYTECHNICS, IREE.)

ABSTRACT

This study is to determine how newspaper are being read on internet and student of Osun state polytechnic Iree. This project will talk on the development of newspaper, mass communication readership, issues of gratification , the factors that are responsible for on line newspaper and the factors that determines the newspaper hard copies entirely. This as to certify that this research work was carried out by Rahman Muminat Adepeyu, matriculation number 10\DMCN\0090 of the department of Mass Communication Osun State Polytechnic Iree. This research work has been duly supervised and approved for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Higher Nation  Diploma in mass commendation.               


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                                                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                                                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                                                       v

Table of contents                                                                                                         vi – vii            

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction                                     1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                                                                                       1 – 3

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                                                                                                       3

1.3       Purpose  of the study                                                                                                                                                              3

1.4       Research question                                                                                                                                                                   4

1.5       Scope of the study                                                                                                                                                                  4

1.6       Significance of the                                                                                                                                                                  4

1.7       Limitations                                                                                                                                                                                          5

1.8       Operational definitions                                                                                                                                                           5

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature review                                     6

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                                                                                                        6

2.2       Theoretical Framework                                                                                                                                                           7 – 9

2.3       Empirical Studies                                                                                                                                                                    9 – 10

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                                                                                           11

3.1       Restatements of research question                                                                                                                              11

3.2       Research Design                                                                                                                                                                     11

3.3       Characteristic of the Study Population                                                                                                                       11

3.4       Sampling Design and Procedure                                                                                                                                 12

3.5       Sample Size                                                                                                                                                                                         12

3.6       Data Collection Instrument                                                                                                                                        12

3.7       Administration of Data Collection                                                                                                                 12

3.8       Validity and Reliability                                                                                                                                                           12

3.9       Data Analysis Procedure                                                                                                                                                         13

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1       Data Analysis and Findings                                                                                                                                        14

4.2       Data Presentation                                                                                                                                                                    14 – 21

4.3       Resolution of research questions                                                                                                                                21 –  22

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations                                                                                              23

5.1       Summary                                                                                                                                                                                             23

5.2       Conclusions                                                                                                                                                                                         23

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                                                                                    24

References                                                                                                                                                                                          25

Questionnaire                                                                                                                                                                          26 – 27

       

 

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

1.0                   INTRODUCTION

1.1                   BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Advancement in information and communication technologies has made it possible to connect computer and computer networks scattered all over the globe together to form a closed circuit, called internet. The internet is an information super. High 1Y through which all sorts of information break news advertisement, elections manifestos and
results, government’s policy s, party programmes. Research articles etc   are available to any interested user .without stress.

Thus, the age long limitation of constraints of distance and time have been reduced. Internet provides a forum for global communication, research development, participatory governance and electronic commerce. Its development has led to the collapse of the national boundaries, reducing the entire planet into a little village.

It also comes with the opportunity to know and to conform to universally acceptable standard value policies, governance and human right.

Communication network plays a very important role in critical like a war, for example. during the cold war between the USA and the Soviet Union, RAND Corporation which is the premier thinking organization  in the United State, plays a vital role in ensuring that networks during the period of the war is not tampered with.

The network the USA, at that time was such that if one computer stop functioning, all computers would stop communication, when people at RAND Corporation realized that the USA authorities would not be able to communicate  if there was a nuclear attack, and if a central server is set up it surely would b the first, target of any bomb.

To solve this problem, RAND created a new type of network that all computers in the network would be independent of each other and could send the received message irrespective of other computer in the network, one of the first networks built on the RAND principle was the pentagon Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPA).

This network was built for defense purpose, later to share information, the pentagon allowed universities to join the network. Student’s had access to this network and were responsible for the development of most of the software that is used on the internet.
Currently the internet is being used in various ways for different applications. internet has become the regular of most business initiative all over the world.

According to a research conducted by Anderson consulting services, senior business executives use the information on the internet to make some of their strategic financial and economic decisions.

We have read a lot about the internet as a library. A research tool, a market and more other interpretations of the internet arc improving almost every day.

The internet, known as the information super High way, is a digital revolution on a global stale it is a global network of networks, a way of connecting computers scattered around the world.

Through it, a computer user is connected to millions of People around the world, few technologies have developed so quickly, captured our imagination so completely, or impacted our world so much as the internet.

In few years it has become the backbone of research, the life blood of business and finance, the promise of education and the diverging tunnel of communication. All you need to connect to the internet is a personal computer, a modern communication software, and a telephone line to connect to the network.

The computer on the internet communicate by using a common protocol called TCP/IP. TCP/JP is used to transfer information from one computer to another. It is made up of two components. internet protocol (IP) and Transmission control protocol (TCP) Both components work in conjunction with each other. (II’) break the information that should be transferred, into small packets and sends it across the network to another computer. A packet is transmission unit of a fixed size.

IP also reassembles the packet at the destination computer. TCP checks if the packets are properly reassembled. It also checks the data for correctness and requests that the data be sent again to the destination computer if there. ii any loss or damage of the data.

 

1.2                   STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

Internet provides a platform for global communication research development participatory governance and electronic commerce, in has been observed that in spite of the enormous internet resource which include a vast, In addition many newspaper organizations have made it possible for readers to have access to the electronic versions of the publications on the internet.

This development’ through a welcome one, may have in certain
ways affected readers patronage of newspaper hardcopies.
This study therefore aims at finding out what problem the emergence of on line publications might have created for the sale of newspaper hardcopies, especially (MTN) to increase in the cover prices of most newspapers

 

1.3                   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study intends to examine the effect of online browsing on the readership of newspapers hardcopies. It also intends to examine the effectiveness of internet as a means of information dissemination.

In addition, it aims at examine the reasons why some people mav prefer online browsing to newspaper hardcopies.

 

1.4                   RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions for the study are:

  1. To what extent has the internet enhanced news gathering and dissemination?
  2. To what extent has on-line readership of newspaper affected the readership of newspaper hardcopies?
  • To what extent do individuals have access to the internet for on-line newspaper reader?
  1. To what extent can the on-line newspaper reading be regarded as a paradigm shift?

 

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will be restricted to Osogbo. individual who are computer literate will be selected for the study.

Osogbo has been chosen because it is the capital of Osun State
where many civil servant who are highly educated are residents.

Moreover, the Iowa hrs three institutions of higher learning ospoly, college of education Ila, college of education Ilesha with thousand of students many of whom are computer literate.

 

1.6                   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will be of benefit to mass communication scholars.

It will also be of to the society at large for making on-line newspaper important and interesting.

It will also help the management of most newspaper to maintain or control the amount of information that will be able to device means of still maintaining the readership of newspaper hardcopies.

COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF HONEY HARVESTED IN TWO DIFFERENT SEASONS OF THE YEAR

ABSTRACT

 

The physico-chemical properties of Honey was determined by analyzing the proximate, Ash content, Sulphated Ash, Total organic solids, Specific Gravity, Water content, Refractive Index, PH, Total sugar /Reducing (Brix),Colour (Icumsa Unit), Dextrose(%), Fructose, Glucose, Viscosity(p/sec). The result indicated proximate composition to be Ash content(%)(2.53-1.07), Sulphated Ash(1.23-0.85),Total organic solids(18.23-20.35),Specific Gravity(1.40-1.41),Water scontent (20.20-20.80),Refractive Index(1.488-1.487),PH(4.20-4.00),Total sugars (79.20-78.60), Colour (61.33-64.97), Dextrose (8.56-0.45), Fructose (39.51-46.27), Glucose (31.13-31.88),Viscosity(3.48-5.04).

 
TABLE OF CONTENT

Page

Title page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v

 

Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                            1 – 3

1.1       Aims and Objectives                                                               3

 

Chapter Two

2.0       Literature review                                                                     4

2.1       History of honey                                                                     4

2.2       Religious significance of honey                                              4 – 5

2.2.1    Physical properties                                                                  5

2.2.2    Uses of honey                                                                                     6

2.3       Honey grading                                                                                    6 – 7

2.4       Types of honey                                                                       7 – 9

2.5       Varieties                                                                                  9 – 10

2.6       Classification                                                                          10 – 11

2.7       Quality Indicator                                                                   11

2.8       Food value                                                                              12

2.9       Granulation                                                                             12

2.10     Determination of quality                                                         12 – 13

2.12     Sugars                                                                                     13

2.13     Proteins and amino-acids                                                        13

2.14     Nutritional                                                                               13 – 14

2.15     Modern uses of honey                                                                        14 – 15

2.16     Osmotic effect                                                                                    15

2.17     Honey drew honey                                                                 15 – 16

2.18     Classification by packaging and processing                           16 – 17

 

Chapter Three

3.0       Materials and methodology                                                    18

3.1       Fructose                                                                                  18

3.2       Glucose                                                                                   18

3.3       Reducing disaccharides as maltose                                         19

3.4       Sucrose                                                                                    19

3.5       Higher sugars or dextrin                                                         20

3.6       Determination of sugars                                                          20 – 21

3.7       Distribution of sugars                                                             21

3.8       Separation of sugars in honey                                                 21

3.9       Glucose (Commercial) in honey                                              22

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Presentation and analysis of data                                           23

4.1       Presentation of table                                                               24 – 26

 

Chapter Five

5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                           26

5.1       Conclusion                                                                              26

5.2       Recommendation                                                                    26

References                                                                              27
 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Honey is as old as written history dating back to 2100 BC where it was mentioned Sumerian and Babylonian cuneiform writings, the Hittie code and then sacred writings of India and Egypt it is presumably even older than that. It names from English living and it was the first and most wide spread sweetener used by man, legend has it that cupid dipped his love arrows in honey before aiming at unsuspecting lovers. In the old testament of the Bible, Israel was often referred to as the land of milk and honey. “Mead, an alcoholic drink made from honey was called nectar of the goods” high praise indeed. Honey was valued highly and often used as a form of currency tribute or offering. In the 4th century (A. D German) peasants paid their feudal Lords in honey and beeswax. .According to Hoff F. (1994)  Honey: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation. Agricultural Economic Report. No 708 A. 107. 708.

Although experts argue whether the honeybee is native to the Americas, conquering spanards in 1600 AD found Mexicans and Central Americans had already developed bee keeping method to produce honey. In ancient days, honey has been used not only in food and beverages, but also to make cement in furniture polishes and varnishes and for medicinal purposes. And of course, bees perform vital senlice of pollinating fruits, legumes and other types of food producing plants in the course of their business of honey production. Honey was pronounced in English (hnni) is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees i.e. (GenusApis) is the most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by bee keepers and consumed by human. (According to   Ministry of Agricultural, Fisheries and Food (1997). Production and Marketing of Honey. Select committees on the Europeans Communities, Session 1996-7,8th Report. The stationary office London). Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees transform nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation, and store it as a primary food source wax honey combs inside the beehive. Beekeeping practices encourage over production of honey so the excess can be taken from the colony. Honey acts its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavours that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweetness. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity (9w) of 0.6. However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium clostridium botulinum which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin producing bacteria in the infant’s immature intestinal tract, leading to illness and even death. (Ambrose J.J  Graham (ed) (1992). The Hive and the honey bee. Prof. Entomology and Extension Apricultist, NC State Univ. Hamilton, IL: Danant.)

In the hive, the bees use their “Honey stomachs” to ingest and regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion until the product reaches a desired quality. It is then store honeycomb cells after the final regurgitation the honeycomb is left unsealed. However, the nectar is still high in both water content and natural yeast which unchecked would cause the sugars in the nectar to ferment. The process continues as bees inside the hive fan their wings creating a strong draft across the honeycomb, which enhances evaporation of much of the water from the nectar. This reduction in water content raises the sugar concentration and prevent fermentation. Ripe honey as removed from the hive by a bee keeper has a long shelf-life and will not ferment if pro in that it will rotate the polarization plane. The fructose will give a negative rotation while the glucose will give a positive one. The overall can rotation be used to measure the ratio of the mixture.

Moreso, honey has the ability to absorb moisture directly from the air, making use of a phenomenon called hygroscopy. The amount of water the honey will absorb is dependent on the relative humidity of the air. This hygroscopic nature require that honey be stored in a sealed containers to prevent fermentation. Honey will tend to absorb more water in this manner than the individual sugars would allow on their own which may be due to other ingredients it contains.(Balderrama, N,R. Menzel & A. Mercer (eds) (1996). Neurobiology and Behaviour of Honeybees. Behavioural and Pharmacological Analysis of the Response in Africanized and Italian Bees .New York Times)

Honey which contains a number of antioxidants components that act as preservatives, also shows promise as a replacement for some synthetic antioxidant widely used as a preservatives in salad dressings and other foods, according to Vicki Engeseth, associate professor of food chemistry at the university. High fructose syrups that is known as Isoglucose in Europe, kicked in the US in the 1970s when the country developed new technologies to process this bulk calorific sweetener. The ingredient is an alternative to sucrose rapidly gained in popularity and is now used extensively by soft drinks makers such as Coca-cola and Pepsi-cola.The Aims and Objectives of the work was to determine the Chemical and Physico-chemical properties of Honey.