THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVENESS MARKETING RESEARCH ON THE INTRODUCTION OF A NEW PRODUCT (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC, IBADAN)

ABSTRACT

 “The Impact of Effective Marketing Research on The Introduction of a New Product” with particular case study of “Nigeria Bottling Company Pic”. It is carried out to satisfy both the need of consumers as well as the goals of the firm. This requires effective definition of some marketing factors where marketing is an important gathering of information for effective decision-making. The project reveal the purposes for carrying out marketing research which includes identifying the problem and way of solving the problems to improve decision making and to control marketing programme, characteristics of a good research, value and cost having information, scope of marketing research, type of research and impact of marketing research in marketing management. The questionnaire distributed to workers of “Nigeria Bottling Company Pic ” under study of personal interview, the data gathered were analyzed on different tasks by using percentages, the data shows that a well conducted marketing research will impact and benefit the company as well as its consumers for the effective marketing research on the introduction of a new’ product. Also, findings of marketing research on the introduction of a new product in this project or study in “Nigeria Bottling Company Pic” shows how influence effective of marketing research as impact the introduction of a new product in previous years.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                         v – vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of the study 2
1.3 Statement of the problem 4
1.4 Research question and hypothesis 4
1.5 Ob jectives of the study 5
1.6 Significant of the study 5
1.7 Scope of the study 6
1.8 Limitation of the study 6
1.9 Definitions of terms 6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Literature review relating to the topic 9
2.2 Sources of marketing research 10
2.3 Importance of marketing research 11
2.4 Distinction between marketing research and marketing information system 12
2.5 Status of marketing research and information 12
2.6 Marketing research and information design process 14

 

CHAPTER THREE

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Hypothesis testing 25

CHAPTER FIVE

Appendix I                                                                         33

Appendix II                                                                        34

References                                                                          37

Organizational chart                                                            38

 

 

  • Introduction

A business manager’s job involves trying to satisfy both the needs, wants of consumers as well as the goals of the firm. This requires effective definition of some marketing factors. Hence, marketing is an important gathering of information for an effective decision-making.

Marketing decisions are made under rapid environment. Hence, manager must anticipate and force the implications of these changes for the firms marketing programs. Decision making in an organizational setting involves considerable risks and to minimize the uncertainties, marketing research will be used as the vehicle to obtain information about the present and future trends of the firms activities especially its product. This will effectively, help the firm to formulate good policies for effective planning of marketing programs.

There are many definitions of marketing research as there are many books on the subject. However, most of them have certain features in common. Firstly, marketing research can be defined as “systematic search for information” secondly, nearly all of them suggest that it involves data analysis and interpretation in addition to data collection. Thirdly, most of them recognize it as an activity that exist for the purpose of providing marketing information and the communication of the results of this analysis to the management.

Furthermore, let me define marketing and research separately before I will define marketing research itself.

Marketing: Marketing may be defined as a management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying consumer requirements needs, wants and desire profitably. This definition has several important implication.

  1. It is a managerial definition rather than a legalistic economic one
  2. The entire system of business action was customer oriented
  • Marketing program starts with the germ of product ideas and does not       end    until

customer’s want are completely satisfied.

  1. The definitions implies that to be successful, marketing must maximize profitable

sales over a long term.

Research: Research may also, be defined as a systematic and objectives investigation of a problem in order to discover relevant information in a way of coining up with a        solution       to

problem that pervade human activities. Therefore, bringing the two words together.

Marketing Research: Is a systematic, gathering, recording and analyzing of data problems relating to the marketing of goods and services.

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ABSTRACT

The project “The Impact of Effective Marketing Research on The Introduction of a New Product” with particular case study of “Nigeria Bottling Company Pic”. It is carried out to satisfy both the need of consumers as well as the goals of the firm. This requires effective definition of some marketing factors where marketing is an important gathering of information for effective decision-making. The project reveal the purposes for carrying out marketing research which includes identifying the problem and way of solving the problems to improve decision making and to control marketing programme, characteristics of a good research, value and cost having information, scope of marketing research, type of research and impact of marketing research in marketing management. The questionnaire distributed to workers of “Nigeria Bottling Company Pic ” under study of personal interview, the data gathered were analyzed on different tasks by using percentages, the data shows that a well conducted marketing research will impact and benefit the company as well as its consumers for the effective marketing research on the introduction of a new’ product. Also, findings of marketing research on the introduction of a new product in this project or study in “Nigeria Bottling Company Pic” shows how influence effective of marketing research as impact the introduction of a new product in previous years.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                   iii

Acknowledgement                                                                       iv

Abstract                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                         v – vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Background of the study 2
1.3 Statement of the problem 4
1.4 Research question and hypothesis 4
1.5 Ob jectives of the study 5
1.6 Significant of the study 5
1.7 Scope of the study 6
1.8 Limitation of the study 6
1.9 Definitions of terms 6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.1 Literature review relating to the topic 9
2.2 Sources of marketing research 10
2.3 Importance of marketing research 11
2.4 Distinction between marketing research and marketing information system 12
2.5 Status of marketing research and information 12
2.6 Marketing research and information design process 14

 

CHAPTER THREE

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Hypothesis testing 25

CHAPTER FIVE

Appendix I                                                                         33

Appendix II                                                                        34

References                                                                          37

Organizational chart    38

THE IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN AN ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF GUINNESS NIGERIA PLC, LAGOS STATE)

ABSTRACT

Employee attitudes are important to management because they determine the behavior of workers in le organization. The commonly held opinion is that “a satisfied worker is a productive worker”. A satisfied workforce will create a pleasant atmosphere within the organization to perform well. Hence the impact of job satisfaction on employee performance in Guinness Nigeria Plc has become a major, plc for research studies. The specific problem addressed in this study is to examine the. Impact of job satisfaction on performance. It considered which rewards (intrinsic and extrinsic) determine job satisfaction of an employee. It also considered influence of age, sex and experience of employees on level of job satisfaction. In addition it investigated in most satisfying event of an employee in the job, h\ employees stay and leave the organization. Data were collected through a field survey using a questionnaire from staffers of the organization. The analysis data revealed that there exists positive correlation between job satisfaction and performance of employees.

Keywords: Job satisfaction employees’, Rewards, Effort, Performance

 

MARKET SEGMENTATION AND BRAND POSITIONING AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOLS FOR CONSUMER SATISFACTION (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC, LAGOS)

ABSTRACT

The market segmentation focuses on dividing the entire heterogeneous market to homogenous market so that each target will be satisfied. It is mostly used for consumer goods and where consumers are scattered while brand positioning aims at establishing a particular product brand in the mind of the customer. Therefore, the first chapter deals with introduction, and historical background of the study and that market segmentation is the bone of an organization. The second chapter deals with literature review. Therefore, the meaning and definition of market segmentation was look into. The third chapter deals with research methodology i.e secondary sources of data collection. The fourth chapter deals with analysis and interpretation of data and responses. The fifth chapter deals with the summary, recommendation and conclusion.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                      ii

Dedication                                                                               iii

Acknowledgement                                                                             iv

Table of content                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                  vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1

1.1     Historical Background of Unilever Nigeria Plc              1

1.2     Statement of the Study                                                  3

1.3     Research Question and Hypothesis                               4

1.4     Objective of the Study                                                   4

1.5     Significance of the Study                                                         5

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                                  5

1.7     Limitation of the Study                                                  6

1.8     The Organization Chart                                                 6

1.9     Definition of Terms                                                       6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Literature Review                                                                    8

2.1     Introduction                                                                            8

2.2     Criteria for Segmentation                                                        12

2.3     Types of Market Segmentation                                               13

2.4     Bases for Segmenting Industrial Markets                      15

2.5     Condition for Effective Segmentation                                     16

2.6     Segmentation Procedure                                                          17

2.7     Algorithms and Approaches                                          18

2.8     Brand Positioning                                                                   19

2.9     Importance of Segmentation                                          23

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Introduction                                                                            24

3.1     Population Size                                                              24

3.2     Sample Size                                                                             26

3.3     Questionnaire                                                                28

3.4     Validity of Research Questions                                               31

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data          32

4.1     Introduction                                                                            32

4.2     Data Analysis                                                                33

4.3     Testing of Hypothesis                                                    37

4.4     Findings                                                                         46

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations and

Suggestion for Further Studies                                                47

5.1     Summary                                                                       47

5.2     Conclusion                                                                     48

5.3     Recommendation                                                           49

5.4     Suggestion for further studies                                        49

Bibliography                                                                  51

Appendix 1 (Letter of Respondent)                                52

Appendix 11 (Questionnaire)                                        53

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                            INTRODUCTION

Over the year marketing and brand positioning have become important areas in marketing research.

A proper understanding of these procedure and concept involves in identifying market segmentation of the marketing management.

It enables the company to design. Most suitable strategies to improve the market share and earning. The need for market segmentation arises when a company with limited resources cannot cater for the demand of the total market.

Hence, the company has to identify the segments where it’s product will be most profitable.

These concepts and the benefits to be obtained in designing a profitable market segmentation would be examined in  this study, data would be collected from chosen segment and the data would be analyzed and interpreted and recommendation would be made based on the result of the study.

 

1.1     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC

Unilever Nigeria Plc was first incorporated as lever brother (West Africa) Ltd on 11th April 1923 by “Lord Leverhulme”. But the company antecedents have to be traced back to his existing in Nigeria and West Africa, generally, and to the fact that the company had since the 19th century been greatly involve with the soap business in Britain.

Unilever Nigeria Plc is one of the leading manufacturing industries in Nigeria. It first started as a soap manufacturing company, and it is today one of the oldest surviving manufacturing organization in Nigeria.

After series of mergers and acquisition, the company diversified into manufacturing and marketing of foods, non soapy detergents and personal care products. These merger and acquisition brought in Lipton Nigeria Ltd in 1985 and cheese brought ponds industries Ltd in 1988. The company change its name to Unilever Nigeria Plc in 2001.

Unilever Nigeria plc is a public limited liability company quoted on the Nigerian stock exchange since 1973.

Currently the company is having 40% of equity holdings and they operate factories which are located at Apapa, Aba, Agbara and Isolo.

The company has many product in their product mix for example they have the following product, Lux, Astrol, Asepso, vin scouring powder, pepsodent as well as close up toothpaste. Unilever Nigeria Plc Aba was commissioned in 1958 and it was producing sunlight detergent and key laundry soap.

But in 1980, an addition plan was installed for the production of Omo and Sun detergent.

The Agbara factory in Ogun State was the company third factory. The factory was commissioned in 1983 for the manufacturing  of edible product like blue band and plantal margarine, industrial oil as will as Oroyo and Coro cooking oil.

These factories refined vegetables oil for third parties.

In December 1989, the factory started producing a food seasoning called “Royco”. The Lipton tea factor formally at Buma Road, Apapa has been fully located in Agbara in other to consolidated the production of foods in one location.

The master bakery centre was  also in Agbara for training of bakers and for product development with specific emphasis on the use of local raw materials.

The company has direct staff strength of over 2500.

 

1.2       STATEMENT  OF THE STUDY

Effectiveness of market segmentation,

Effectiveness of market structure.

PAST RESEARCH: The publication of the past research of disagreement on the kind of research methodology used by the former researchers.

OBSERVATION OF THE WORLD AROUND US: When there is need to observe the behavioural pattern of being lead to conduct a research.

COMMON SENSE: The problem to which an immediate solution should be given usually stimulate a researcher to embark on research.

CONCEPTUALIZATION: When there is phenomenons that need to have a conceptual definition, there will be a stimulation to embark on research.

The actual production of goods has increased with the scale of modern industries. The longer the company, the greater the need for market segmentation and brand positioning to check whether the market still exist or not.

Theoretical decision has to be undertaken to know may be to go into production or not.

 

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS

The following are the research questions:

Qi: Should research be carried out before the launching of the product?

Qii: How effective is the marketing research?

Qiii: Does this research have any positive effect on the organization decision making?

Qiv: How does the research affect the marketing segmentation?

Qv: What improvement does marketing research has on the quality of the organization product?

The following are the research hypothesis:

  1. Market research enhance good product
  2. Market research plays a major role in the market segmentation.
  • Market research boosts sales volume.

 

1.4       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to examine how the company in question (Unilever Nigeria Plc) has improved on their product planning and development process and thereby increasing the generation of revenue and the acquisition of potential customers by the company, The study also seek to examine how the company has explored the avenue to new product idea and how the company over come obstacles that make product fail.

The study shall examine the methods of improving on the product planning, sales and advertising techniques as adopted by the company so as to brings about increase in market share and higher profit margin. To evaluate the means of testing the responses of the customer pertaining to price, product, quality and other factors those are likely to affect consumer responses.

To examine how the workers of the organization contribute in the development and market segmentation, it will also examine how consumers are reacting to the company product and development in the company product.

 

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

  1. To encourage good decision making: The use of marketing research in gathering and analyzing relevant information will assist the company in making good decision on market segmentation.
  2. To reduce the rate of failure in the market: The marketing research is to keep the company as profitable as possible by providing information on the type of product to be produced, it price and the most suitable method of promotion.
  3. To create alternative solution to marketing problem: in other words marketing research reduce risk or give alternative solution to marketing problems.
  4. To detect environment changes: Through market segmentation, any changes that occur in the environment will be detected.

 

1.6      SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The coverage of this research study shall be limited only to the topic of the research which is “Market segmentation and brand positioning as a tools for consumer satisfaction”. A case study of Unilever Nigeria Plc Lagos. The company manufactures it’s product as an option whether to make or buy.

 

1.7       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

These are factors that serves as hindrance to this research work they are:

The policy of the company in question: That is the policy preventing the employee of the organization from disclosing information to researchers.

Another factor is insufficient fund: To embark on travelling or reaching the place to obtain the information.

Another limited factors is time and distance: The organization is located in Lagos which is a very far place to the researcher.

 

 

 

  • DEFINITION OF TERMS
  1. MARKET SEGMENT: It is the different individual market within a whole market put together. it is the different group of the sum total of consumer for the product of a company e.g. baby dresses, materials for school children, materials for adult e.t.c.
  2. MARKET SEGMENTATION: It is the process of taking the total heterogonous market for a product and dividing it into several sub market or segment each of which tends to be homogenous in all respects.
  3. BRAND: It is a class of good of a particular producer. It is something done to show the ownership of a product and to distinguish a product from others.
  4. POSITIONING: This is the act of designing the company product and image of the company to occupy a distinctive place in target’s market mind.
  5. BRAND POSITIONING: This refer to the acts of designing the company product and marketing mix to fit a given place in consumer’s mind.
  6. MARKETING: This is the management process of identifying the customer needs and want and getting the right product that will satisfy the needs of customer at the right price at the right time and at the right place.
  7. PRODUCT: This is the physical entity, items or article that a seller offer to the buyer in exchange for money or something of value.
  8. SERVICE: This is a thing that cannot be seen or touch but can be felt. It is also offer by a seller to a buyer in exchange for money or something of value.
  9. PROMOTION: In marketing mix, promotion means thing done to induce or inform or persuade customers. It can also be something done to make customer aware of a product e.g advertising, sales promotion, publicity, personal selling.
  10. PRICING: This is the amount changed for a product. Charging lower price enables the widespread acceptance of a product to spend up.
  11. SALES PROMOTION: This is the part of promotional mix, it is a short term incentive use to induce customer in other to stimulate quick sales motion.
  12. PUBLICITY: This is also among the promotion mix and it is defined as the means of making a company product known to public through a form of editorial in the press, radio, television e.t.c. without changing the company.
  13. ADVERTISING: This is a non-personal form of communication which involves transmission of communication and written or non-written standard message to large number of intended audience it is also one of promotional tools.

 

THE IMPORTANT OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FAN MILK NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

The whole write up reveals critically the importance of distribution network and customer service in wholesale and retail organization. A case study of Fan Milk Nigeria Plc, Ibadan. It  provides the advantages to be derived from operating a sound distribution network scheme in industry. Further, an extensive review of related literature was undertaken while various method of data collection were used to obtain the necessary information that is the require for the purpose at hand. Finally, recommendation are forwarded which are researcher feel will help Fan Milk Nigeria Plc and other manufacturing companies in general to improve the qualities of their products.    

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Age distribution respondent  
  2. Sex respondents  
  3. Marital status of the respondent
  4. Education qualification
  5. Classes of people working
  6. Year of experience
  7. What are your intention of using middlemen
  8. What role does middlemen play in your organization?
  9. What do you think can motivate you in handling the product of the company?
  10. What are the method adopted by this company to gather information

on how customer react on their product?

  1. What are the improvements of technology in the distribution of the

organization product?

  1. Do you take title of the good handle?
  2. If yes or No what category of middlemen does you belong?

Appendix I

Appendix II

Questionnaire

Organizational Chart

 

             

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title                                                                                                                             i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

List of tables                                                                                                               v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi – vii

Abstract                                                                                                                      viii

 

Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                               1

1.3       Objective of the study                                                                                    2

1.4       Research question                                                                                           2

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                                                        2

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                3

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                          3

1.8       Limitation of the study                                                                                   3 – 4

1.9       Definition of terms                                                                                         4

1.10     Historical background of the case study                                                        4 – 5

 

Chapter Two

2.0      Literature review                                                                                             6

2.1       Distribution channel and the structure

2.2       Participants in distribution channel

2.3       Function of members of chain of distribution

2.4       Method of transportation, distribution network

2.5       Cost of distribution

 

 

Chapter Three

Procedures study, population and sampling

3.0       Study sample

3.1       Sample size

3.2       Sources of data collection

3.3       Questionnaire design analysis

3.4       Method of data

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Data presentation analysis  and discussion

4.1       Interpretation of hypothesis                                                                            28

4.2       Findings

 

Chapter Five            

5.0       Summary of finding                                                                                        29

5.1       Conclusion drawn from finding                                                                     29

5.2       Recommendation based on conclusion                                                           29 – 30

References                                                                                                      31

Appendix I                                                                                                      32

Appendix II                                                                                                    33 – 34

Organizational chart                                                                                        36

CHAPTER ONE

          

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Prior to industrial revolution of 19th century the system of distribution cannot be clearly distinguish because of system that was practice then known as “trade by barter” however the advent of industrial revolution in 19th century up to date has been able to transform some small scale business organization.

Due to the complexity of the business organization there is need for sophisticated distribution network in order to move good and service to where it will be needed. Thus for any organization to achieve its set objectives the management of such firm need to identify some intermediaries that will channel the distribution network.

Some intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailer buy in bulks some acquire the little of the goods and service some other middlemen such as stock broker and stand as a representative customer and more negotiate or behalf of the goods and service.

The agents are also called middlemen. The entire objective can only realize through the role the marketing play in modern economy.

Role of marketing: – The role of marketing play in organization cannot be left out in this introduction similarly the firm sales force and advertising decision depend upon how training and motivation that the dealer is in need of.

Additionally, in order for the role of marketing to complete and for the organization to attain the set goals, the company must embark on long term commitment.

 

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Fan milk was incorporated in November 1961 by Dr. Daniel and its diary plant went into production on the 3rd of June 1963. Its corporate headquarters in Ibadan Eleyele Industrial Estate and another factory in Kano industrial estate with distribution centre nation wide Fan Milk Plc is the producer of the best diary food in the number for all products.

Fan milk production is well organized in all part of the country. The firm organizes its distribution process by making sure that their production is seen even in the street. The fan milk include diet flavoured drink, fanchoco flavoured drinks, fan ice flavoured, fan lolly drink yogo and so on and sofoto

 

 

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There has always be contention among the distribution network for wholesales and retails organization in the traditional schools of thought. This has lead to finding out the following question. They are as follows: –

  1. Whether the distribution network will improve the activities of wholesales and retail distribution prices.
  2. Whether the distribution available is adequately or inadequately for wholesales and retail organization
  3. What other distribution techniques is highly recognized in distribution process.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The major objectives of this project are: –

  1. To examine the organization policy and goods is relation to distribution network, management and customers service in wholesales and retail organization.
  2. To examine how the company has been to implement and carry out the problems that is facing distribution channel and providing a relatively lasting solution to the obstacles
  • To emphasize to what extent the workers of the company are aware of the management and organization distribution.
  1. To find out how many competitors distribution network has affected the activities of the company distribution strategy in the market.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

It is important that some hypothesis has been tested for the purpose of this study in order to determine the effectiveness of distribution network to wholesales and retail organization.

In this regard, the following questions shall be tested, they are: –

  1. Does distribution network improve the supply of goods and service by the wholesales and retail organization?
  2. Is distribution network limited to intermediaries only?
  • What are the strategy used by the intermediaries to improve the supply of goods and service?        

 

 

 

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

For the purpose of this research some state of hypothesis are formulated, they are: –

  1. Null hypothesis by Ho
  2. Alternative hypothesis represented by Hi
  3. Hi: There is relationship between distributor network and customer service in wholesales and retail network and customer service in wholesale and retail organization.
  4. Ho: Distribution channel should not be delimited

Hi: Distribution channel should be delimited.

Hi: Distribution channel improve wholesale and retail organization

Hi: Distribution channel does not improve wholesale and retail organization         

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will not doubts go in long way to assist a potential business manager of Fan Milk Plc in order to boost the distribution process of the organization and also help ahead and in term of decision making.

The study will also serve as aid of Fan Milk Plc in the process of enhancing the performance of management in the area of product and marketing concept.

Also the study will enable the management or marketing department of many company like that of Fan Milk to expanding their distribution performance in small area.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will resolve round the state objectives and will be limited in scope to the distribution network of Fan Milk Plc. The study will also examine critical process of distribution strategy by wholesales and retail organization.

However, the scope of this project work may be restricted to Fan Milk Plc in order to guarantee convenience.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY                               

Negative attitude of respondents is seen to be one of the greatest problems where respondents may not collect the questionnaire and these of some that would still be. The questionnaire would not bother returning them enough, above some respondents would not disclose some fact about the issue being discussed and this hamper the study for the issues at hand.

Some executive would be highly relevant to part away with useful information of the company activities about the distribution procedure.

This kind of attitude creates many problems for the researchers because he/she has not been able to gain access into such relevant information.

The greatest force able limitation are these cost. This is because the expense to be made in preparing, printing and administering of questionnaire to gather information would be a huge amount of money.

Other limiting factor is time as the period of the coincide with the school academic work having to combine, traveling, collecting information writing etc with academic work especially as the final exam lurk around the corner.

 

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Intensive distribution: Producers of convenience goods are common raw materials typically seek intensive distribution network that is stocking their product in as many outlet as possible, these must have place utility.

Exclusive distribution: This is where a limited number of dealers are granted the exclusive right to contribute the company’s product in their respective territories it often goes with exclusive dealing where the manufacture require these dealers out to carry competing live. Exclusive distribution is found to have extent in distribution of new automobiles, some major appliance and some women’s appeal brands.

Selective Distribution Network: Between intensive and exclusive distribution the use of more than one and less than all the intermediaries who are willing to carry a particular product. The company is that use this kind of network does not have to dissipate effort over man y bullets including many original ones. It can therefore develop good working relating with the selected middlemen and expect that is better than average selling effort.

Brokers: An agent who does not have a direct physical control to the goods in which he deals but represent other buyers or sellers.

Marketing Segment: This is referred to as different individual market.

Marketing Mix: This can be seen as mixing together of the marketing variable (product, price, promotion and place). In the right proportion that will enable the marketing programme to be carried out in a successful manner at any time.

Marketing Modification: These are strategies of altering product characteristics such as quantity, performances of appearance in order to suit consumer.

Marketing Segmentation: This is the process of grouping the real and potential consumer for a commodity or services that posses common characteristics so that the market can formular a marketing programme (strategy) that will reach existence.

Jobber: This agents buys security from his principal and sell in his own name.

Market: Market is refers to an organization of all persons and institution concerned in the exchange of any commodity and who are always kept in concept.

 

1.9       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Fan Milk Nigeria plc was founded in 1960 by a Danish Merchant and an Industrialist Erik Emborg with a recombination plant at Ibadan a distribution centre in Lagos with less than 30 employees.

In the 1970s Fan Milk introduces yoghurt milk, Ice, lollies, ice cream and new tetra packaging technology. The new products became very popular in the market and generated the financial strength to set up further depots and in 1981, a second recombination plant in ranco came up.

At the outset, the foreign partner owned 96% of Fan milk plc, when the government introduce the Nigeria enterprises promotion Decree in the late 1970s. Fan milk plc increase its capital and invited more Nigerians to invest which created a 60% Nigerian participation in the company.

During 1980s and 1990s import restriction economic difficulties, devaluations and shortages of fuel weakened Fan Milk plc. In 1998 the foreign partner and the industrialization fund for developing countries (Denmark) agreed to an infusion of capital which let the company restructure finances refurbish cold rooms, increase the number of depots and introduce a product (Tomico) a fruit drink which became an instant success in the market.                         

THE IMPORTANCE OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FAN MILK NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

 

The important of distribution network and customer service in wholesalers and retails organization is the focus to demonstrate. It obvious that no producer can deny the important of distribution channel in today economy world. The kind of distribution medium available are what will be consider along will meaning of organization chart and selectivity distribution. Similarly, chapter two emphases on definition of distribution network from different scholars of thought. The essence of this is to eject the two prefaces and understanding of distribution to wholesales and retail organization. Chapter three will be focusing on method of data and information collection, so that information can be search for, guide keep, process, store and produce the outcome. Fact analysis and finding are the major aspect of chapter four. This chapter is base on activities performed by the middlemen in distribution network. Conclusively, the last chapter for the project concludes with recommendation and welcomes any advice on some shortcoming from the previous chapter. The summary of the preceding chapter are also part of the final part.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                               1 – 2

1.3       Objectives of the study                                                                                   2

1.4       Research questions                                                                                          2

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                                                        2 – 3

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                3

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                          3

1.8       Limitation of the study                                                                                   3 – 4

1.9       Definition of terms                                                                                         4 – 5

1.10     Historical background of the case study                                                        5

1.11     Organizational chart of the case study                                                           6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature review                                                                                             7

2.1       Distribution channel and its structure                                                             8

2.2       Participants in distribution channel                                                                 8 – 9

2.3       Function of the members of chain distribution                                               9 – 12

2.4       Method of transportation, distribution network                                             12 – 13

2.5       Cost of distribution                                                                                         13

2.6       Customers service in wholesale and retail firm                                               14 – 15

 


CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   16

3.1       Study population and sampling procedure                                                     16

3.2       Study sample                                                                                                  16

3.3       Sample size                                                                                                     16

3.4       Sources of data collection                                                                               16

3.5       Questionnaire design                                                                                      17

3.6       Method of data analysis                                                                                 17

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data presentation, analysis and discussion                                                     18 – 21

4.1       Hypothesis testing                                                                                          21 – 22

4.2       Interpretation of hypothesis / findings                                                           22  – 23

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                                   24

5.1       Summary of finding                                                                                        24

5.2       Conclusion drawn from the finding                                                               24 – 25

5.3       Recommendation based on conclusion.                                                          25

Bibliography                                                                                                   26

Appendix                                                                                                        27

Questionnaires                                                                                                28 – 31

ABSTRACT

This research project is carried out to investigate and analyze the impact of test marketing and innovation on the new product. In carrying out of this research, the use of questionnaire personal interview and chi-square method were adopted. Test-marketing and innovation is considered to be the major tools for many organization to know the consumer reaction before the introduction of the new product.

 

Key words: Test marketing, innovation, product and planning.    

 TABLE OF CONTENT

Title                                                                                                                             i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv – v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vii – vii

Abstract                                                                                                                      viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1 – 2

1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                               2 – 3

1.2       Significant of the study                                                                                  3

1.3       Purpose of the study                                                                                       3 – 4

1.4       Scope of the study                                                                                          4

1.5       Limitation of the study

1.6       Background of the study and                                                                                     4

1.7       Organizational chart                                                                                        5

1.8       Definition of term                                                                                           6-7

1.9       Research question                                                                                           7                      CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           8 – 9

2.1       Product                                                                                                           9 – 12

2.2       New Product                                                                                                               12 – 13

2.3       New product development                                                                             13 – 21

2.4       Reason for failure of success                                                                          21 – 22

2.5       Product diffusion                                                                                            22 – 23

2.6       Product life cycle                                                                                            23 – 25

2.7       Product strategy                                                                                              25 – 27

2.8       Test marketing                                                                                                27 – 30

2.9       Reasons for test marketing                                                                             30

2.10     Challenges in new product development                                                        30

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   31

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                    31

3.2       Secondary source of data collection                                                               32

3.3       Primary sources of data collection                                                                  32 – 34

3.4       Method of primary data collection                                                                 32 – 34

3.5       Population size                                                                                                34

3.6       Sample size                                                                                                     35 – 36

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data presentation analysis and presentation                                                   37

4.1       Analysis or responses to the questionnaire problem                                       37 – 47

4.2       Testing of hypothesis and statement of hypothesis                                        48 – 50

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                                   51

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         51

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      51

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                            51 – 52

Questionnaire                                                                                                  53 – 56

Bibliography                                                                                                   57

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • INTRODUCTION

Although product development is not usual recognized as a formal stage in the product life cycle, many ideas for long term product planning are derived from the concepts that are generated through the preliminary process. Product development is a strategy for company growth by offering modified or new product to current market segments. Before introduction, a new product in the market place will go through the eight distinct stages of the new product development i.e. idea generation, idea screening, concept development, marketing strongly, business analysis, product development, test marketing and commercialization.

Test marketing and innovation on new product are factors that needs to be weighted so as to avoid failure of such product in the current market segment. Up to this time reaction of potential buyers to the new product has not been tested under normal marketing conditions. Potential customers may have been asked to react to neither one or more product features and to comment on the packaging and advertising appeals.

Test marketing is the stage where the entire product and marketing program is tried out to for the first time in a small number of well chosen and authentic sales environments.

While innovation is the act of developing a new process and introducing it to the market. It is essentially an entrepreneurial act, innovation means change; sometimes radical change, such as development of product and some incremental change such as modification of existing product features or component.

In either case, Unilever Nigeria plc management must develop process to encourage and guide the changes taking place since innovation generally stems from purposeful search for opportunities management guru peter Drucker identified that opportunities for innovation exist both within and outside a company or industry.

Opportunities internal to a company include unexpected events, incongruities in processes or between expectation and result process needs and changes in the market place or industry structure opportunities external to a company include demographic changes in perception and new knowledge.

1.1     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The foregoing research findings suggests the impact of test marketing and innovation on new product growth and the important of gaining large market share. Consumer satisfaction rate and industrial competitive abilities.

Test marketing and innovation of products made segmentation decision in regards to customers satisfaction highly important area of decision in Unilevers Nigeria plc. It aids product differentiation thereby limiting it to the current segment market.

The problem could therefore include:

  1. The risk of new product failure or services
  2. Competitors from various and other companies constitute a risk.
  • Reduction in the profit level of unilever product constitute another risk.

 

 

 

1.2     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

          This study is significant in the following areas:

  1. The research findings will serve as a guide to Unilever Nigeria plc on matter relating to test marketing and innovation, consequently defines are where both could help the improvement of market strategy.
  2. It will reveal the appropriate needs of the consumer on the product.
  3. It will also reveal area of strength and weakness of Unilever Nigeria plc in the current market segment
  4. To encourage unilever Nigeria plc to take cognizance, not only of competitive product market but customer/consumers satisfaction
  5. To reveal more challenges that lies ahead and how to achieve the target objective on the new product.
  6. To show the customer taste, purchasing power and wants for unilever product.

1.3     PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The main purpose for this research topic i.e. the impact of test marketing and innovation on new product are:

  1. to identify the stages involves in new product development.
  2. To consider the reason for test marketing a product                    To asses the concept of innovation in the segmented market
  • To find out why new product fail Or succeed?
  1. To identify the strategies used by first adopters and compare with unilever Nigeria plc marketing strategies for new product.
  2. Analysis of the business environment.

1.4     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of the study based on this research findings is limited to unilever Nigeria plc oregun Lagos.

1.5     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

          The major problems encountered that make the research work not be full are:

Time constraints, inadequate data, academic work load, getting of modern textbooks and journal, and attitude of respondents.

1.6     BACKGROUND F THE STUDY.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE UNILEVER NIGERIA, PLC

          The company first came into existence in Nigeria and incorporated as a private company under the name “Lever Brothers West Africa Soap Company” went public in 1923. It subsequently changed its name to lever Brother limited in compliance with company and Allied matter decree of 1990. The company substituted the word “Limited” in the name with plc to become lever brother and its foots in the foods and drinks business by its merger with Lipton Nigeria limited in July 1985 and in the personal product industries limited in December 1988.                   

          Currently, Lever Brother Nigeria plc operates three factors which was commissioned in 1924. Ever since expansion has taken place it include the production of international toilet soap brands like Lux Astrial, Asespo, and rewards, in addition to sops, personal product such as pepsodent, close-up tooth paste and petroleum jellies are also produced.

It should be noted that in September 2001, the name Lever Brother Nigeria plc was changed to unilever Nigeria plc.

PRODUCT PACKAGING AS A TOOLS FOR BOOSTING SALES VOLUME IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

 This project takes artificial look at the methods, procedures used in carrying out the product packaging as tools for promotional programme. To be precise, the project takes Unilever Nigeria plc Lagos as a case study. The study deals with the introduction of the research work where emphasis was placed on general introduction of the enquiry relevance was however reviewed on concept and classification of product packaging and various promotional techniques. Also, this project focuses on the methodology employed in the research work, it contains research design of questionnaire were thoroughly analyzed and the findings were properly presented and three working hypothesis earlier formulated were tested. Concluded with major research findings, summary for futures researchers.        

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

  1. Sex distribution
  2. Age distribution
  3. Marital status
  4. Educational qualification
  5. In the organization
  6. Income distribution
  7. What does packaging mean to you?
  8. What will you say is the objective of packaging?
  9. Packaging can be divided into?
  10. Which of these characteristic of packaging is best know to you?
  11. What are the factors to be considered in product packaging?
  12. What are the means adopted by the company in transporting

their packaged product to the final consumer?

  1. Which of these function can be organization take advantage of

packaging for?

  1. What are the type of packaging adopted by company in product

packaging?

  1. What are the packaging strategy adopted by the company in product

packaging?

  1. What factors to be considered in choosing method of transport

for product packaging?

  1. How does product packaging increase organization sales turnover?
  2. How does effective product packaging help company product?
  3. What are the various factor that contribute to packaging growth

use as a marketing tools.

  1. What are the affect packaging decision for a new product in your company?
  2. What are the element of packaging as a tool for sales turnover?

Appendix I

Appendix II

Questionnaire

Organizational Chart


TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page                                                                                                           i

Certification                                                                                                       ii

Dedication                                                                                                         iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                             iv

Table of Content                                                                                                v – vi

Abstract                                                                                                             vii

 

Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                                        1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                    1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                   1

1.3       Objective of the study                                                                        2

1.4       Research question                                                                               2

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                                            2

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                    2

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                              3

1.8       Limitation of the study                                                                       3

1.9       Definition of terms                                                                             3 – 4

1.10     Historical background of the case study                                            4  – 5

 

Chapter Two

2.0       Literature review                                                                                 6

2.1       Definition of packaging                                                                      6 – 7

2.2       Categories of packaging                                                                     7 – 9

2.3       Types of and method of packaging                                                    9 – 10

2.4       Packaging policies and strategies                                                        10  – 11

2.5       The product stages before packaging                                                             11 – 12

2.6       Packaging trends                                                                                12 – 15

2.7       Function and important of packaging

2.8       Factors to consider in the selection of right packaging

2.9       Packaging as means of transportation

2.10     Dispatch documentation of buying and selling of packaging

Chapter Three

3.0       Research methodology                                                                       16

3.1       Procedures study population and sampling

3.2       Study sample                                                                                      16

3.3       Sample size                                                                                         16

3.4       Source of data collection                                                                    16

3.5       Questionnaire design

3.6       Method of data analysis                                                                     16 – 17

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Data presentation, analysis and discussion                                         18

4.1       Hypothesis testing                                                                              18 – 20

4.2       Interpretation of hypothesis findings                                                             20

 

Chapter Five

5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                       26

5.1      Summary of finding                                                                            26

5.2       Conclusion drawn from the findings                                                  26

5.3       Recommendation based on conclusion                                               26 – 27

5.4       Suggestion for further studies                                                            27

References                                                                                          28

Appendix I                                                                                          29

Appendix II                                                                                        30 – 31

List of tables                                                                                       32

Organization chart                                                                              33

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The product packaging as a tool for boosting sales volume in manufacturing industries cannot be over-emphasized for the fact that it is a way of developing the nations economy. In respect to this project, product packaging in a business organization will be dealt with. This is a distinction between the terms “packaging which is not always clear.

In this study product packaging is used for the general operation of putting goods into container for shipment and storage or it can be taken as the act of placing before selling to the general public. They are material that protects the actual product from weather and other destructive agents.

Product packaging container (often in mass production) for the packaging of product or goods particularly, those pass into domestic and international market.

Prior to the advent of product packaging, a generalization of ideas that about then the product have been identified and planning will be based upon selection of best alternatives, also the testing of market through research and development with the best alternative idea collected.

Sometimes, it is done by immediate environmental factor, for instance the employees or specific set of people. These set of people have to pass their comment as to whether the product is all right in term of size, shape, colour and utility after which the product will be taken to the entire public through product packaging.

Product packaging is the most paramount aspect in the incoming or outgoing product goods. It services some vital purpose to the goods, consumer and as well as producers in boosting the sale volume of the product question, such as protection trade appeal, consumer convince image coordination, sales volume promotion, deign coordination of the product and as a product utility factors.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS

In spite of the various opportunities that product packaging confer on organization effectiveness, efficiency, few problem are still in existences which as follows:

  1. In ability of management to adopt to prevailing changes in modern product packaging.
  2. Lack of personnel that are proficient to handle product packaging as a tool for boosting sales volume.
  • Some industries that are willingly to embark on it are prevented by the associated cost.
  1. In most cases, some consumers are been scare to purchase the product of the company, that is consumers substandard product does to its price.
  2. Lastly, it requires extra time and technological changes.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study are as follows:

  1. The examine the product packaging as a tool for boosting the sale volume in manufacturing industries.
  2. To examine the general concept and trend in sales volume in manufacturing industries.
  • To investigates how an industry could adopt itself to prevailing changes in business organization.
  1. To examine how to build desirable flexibility into packaging goods to meet future requirement at a minimum cost.
  2. To examine various method of packaging in order to ensure that suitable product for incoming supplies and shipment is available.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTION

This research project attempt to answer the following research questions.

  1. Does product packaging has any significant relationship with sales volume.
  2. Does failure in packaging for formulation has any significant relationship to all department in the organization.

 

1.5       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between packaging and sale in manufacturing industries

Hi:       There is significant relationship between packaging and sale in manufacturing industries.

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between failure in packaging formulation to all department in the organization.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between failure in packaging formulation to all department in the organization.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The significance of this study is to examine any strategies, approaches or method of packaging that could be used in any manufacturing industries for boosting sales volume of their products.

In addition purposely want to book into how customers will react to production of the product strategy on sales volume of Unilever Nigeria Plc.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The volume is very broad in prospective product packaging management encompasses it. This product will reveal all issue related to packaging as management function as a tool for boosting sales volumes and area of study include: introduction to topic product packaging as a tools for boosting sales volume in manufacturing industries.

Literature reviews, field or research limitation and recommendation.

The findings consist of this Unilever Nigeria plc, then generalized for the entire organization setting of the Unilever Nigeria plc, the Lagos Apapa braches were used, testing and design of containers for product packaging and dispatch documentation.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following were the problems.

  1. Time: A unique limitation of this work couple with class assignment, lectures and methodology employed limited the of this project.
  2. Financials Constrains: Were another obstacle that restricted in producing detailed project on product on product packaging process of goods.
  • Lack of Reference Materials: No enough references material, that really centre on this research topic, such as text books restricted the scope of the project.
  1. Collection of Data Information: Limitation in this regard was due to official protocol and secrecy of the company and the policies adopted.
  2. Non-Chalant Attitude of Staff: Most of the senior staffs and management were not willing and ready to supply information they counted it as way of disturbance to their official duty.

All the same, systematic approach, friends posture and others made series of interviews possible, but not without hitch and frustration here and there.

 

 

1.9       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY

The company First came into existence in Nigeria and incorporated as a private company under Unilever West Africa Soap Company and later to Unilever Nigeria Limited in 1955.

In retrospect precisely in 1923, the company received public recognition, it substituted the word “Limited” in its name with plc to become Unilever Nigeria plc.

Unilever Nigeria plc, strengthened its foot in Food and drinks business by its merger with Lipton Nigeria plc in July 1985, and on the personal product business by merging with chance product industries limited in December 1988.

Currently, Unilever Nigeria plc, operate three factories which are located at Apapa, Aba, and Agbara in different state of the Federation, Lagos, Imo, and Delta respectively. The company. The company started business of producing bar soap using palm oil, in the Apapa which was commissioned in 1924, ever since expansion has taken place to include the population of international toilet soap product like, lux, stral, respondent and close-up tooth paste and petroleum jelly are manufacture at a papa to show product mix.

 

1.10     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Strategy: This can be defined as the adoption of course of actions or the use of resources to attain competitive objectives, it is a link between what the organization want to achieve and polices adopted to guide its activities.

Sales: This is an act of having product by the producer disposed to the final and ultimate consumer at or it is a process of changing the producer product with money ahs a profit.

Boosting: This is a market strategy aimed at communicating to the target consumers and the market that the right product is available at the right price. It include advertising sales promotion personal selling and public relation.

Product: This is the result of transforming raw materials into finished goods by exert energy, mean of power and time.

Preservation or Protective Coat: This is the process or methods suitable for goods or materials which are forwards out or loaded in warehouse need anti-corrosive or other protection.

Open creates of base boards: This is the system of product packaging which provide stability for goods or plant coverage e.g heavy machine or similar plant.

Particular sales container: A soft protective that can be easily removed on the arrival at the destination.

Bale and Trusses: The type of packaging which does not protect the good or material against stock in stocking.

Wool: This is material used in preventing moisture against the goods in the store, for the preservation and protection of maintenance spear parts and also in transit of packaging.

Cushioning: This is a rubber material used in packaging.

Advice Note: This is a note that give the purchaser the minimal notice of good.

Delivery Note: This is evidence, that the goods have been delivered.

Consignment Note: This is the hawkers carriers receipt for goods and evidence of delivering the goods accordingly.

Packaging Note: This is a document that shows what each individual package contains.    

 

CHAPTER TWO

 

2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       INTRODUCTION

It is intension of this chapter for review the works of the earliest writer on effectiveness of packaging on the organization product the research also consulted textbooks and other relevant on packaging.

Bennett P. (1992) sees packaging a habit or process of developing coverage or housing for product to prevent it from destruction agents and damages and also to make the products to be attractive in the sight of the prospective consumer and it also influence sales. He argues further that packaging of the product of an organization contribute to the achievement of the company.

Oxford Advance dictionary explain packaging as an objective wrapped in paper or packed in a box or practice it is identified with container or mental or plastic container. In Africa most consumer buys product on the basis a luxury decoration of the packaging.

Oyeniyi (1990) explain packaging as an act of placing a product in a special package before selling to the public. It is the material that protects the products from weather and other destructive agents in this ways, we are talking in terms of containers for our product.

Stanton W.J (1991) define packaging as the way and the manner by which a product is being packed to suit the consumers interest. And people views, he argues further that people view production packaging on various ways, because some prefer package merchandises and more than safe or attractive container for goods. It also refer packaging as the medium means of conveying advertisement message and product are important in the sight of the consumer due to the material used for its package.

Gills (1994) sees packaging as a cover or guide that protect manufactured product so as to prevent it against spoilage or deteriorate, he argue further that the effective packaging help the management and customer to store deteriorated materials until its needed, he identify the following importance of packaging.

  1. It helps the management to transfer its product from point of production to the consumer.
  2. It also served as protection for the organization product
  • Packaging also help the consumer to identify a company product from another.
  1. Packaging also add to the attractive of the organization.
  2. It helps in effective storage.

Charles D.S (1990) explain packaging as a tool which direct the attention of the consumer, that is packaging and advertising are used together because package and its design are seen as an advert, therefore promote organization sales.

Stanton (1998) define packaging as the general group of activities in product planning on which involve designing and production, is the part of product planning on which a researcher designs and produce it packaging.

A package is (product) physical container and this may include a card board, box, glass, aluminum or plastic or paper, bar Styrofoam or combination of these products frequently have more than one physical container for example, cereal is shipped in large cardboard boxes.

Boone (2000) describes it as a vital part of the total product as it gives or offers protection for the production while simultaneously performing a promotional taste side.

A package has major function according to Boone (1980) container and promotion contaminate in the essential efficiency in physical distribution while the promotional aspect of packaging operate to influence demand, problem of contaminate tend to be tactical and reasonably objective such as requirement as to strength, size and resistance to moisture and other chemical elements promotional requirement concern such things as the package ability to attract attention. Its adaptability to advertising and so on.

He expresses development of a package to serve those functional well as more subjective process. Although technical problems of disallowing produce to spread are very difficult one’s source product must produces, the promotional aspect of packaging posses the most difficult decision requirement. Packaging as  apart of marketing strategy is today largely approached from a system point of views. This as become important aspect of a firm marketing programme. Some product become externally difficult to differentiate many consumer goods are so similar that without the fancier brand of trade market on the packaged, buyer would not be able to tell the difference among them for example brand of drugs. This packaging must be treated as part of marketing management rather than as strictly technical problem in the physical landing packaging must be judged from the following criteria. The packaging informative and promotional value the state of goods as recently the role of packaging designing physical distribution.

Oyeniyi (2000) explain that packaging is an act of placing a product in a feature of the adding sense. In the olding days (mostly consumable items) carrying their wears to the market on shells for sales with out carrying much about the immediate or outer package of the bonus or arts in carrying them to the market place, some of these e.g vegetable are some thing wrapped in newspaper, leaves, etc which does not allow for convenience of having to the consumer.

A consumer would be able to satisfy him self, herself particular product when the product is offered in a reasonable level of profit to the manufactured, however, for a manufacturing firm to be able to rise to this challenge by providing the good necessary to satisfy these needs where, when and how these product are wanted to be packed in something (container) that must give the consumer or use a much latter time, some months or weeks after purchase e.g leverage or sweat and several rule away from where they are manufactured.

Packaging according to Kotter (1997) include the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Since the cannot be sold naked (without any container) the entire activities of providing. It also include in material of which the package is made the unique colours, graphics, and symbols used to differentiate a brand of product from other brands. The importance of packaging to the modern marketers lies in its extensive use. The importance of packaging in today marketing decision making has encourage some marketers to treat packaging as another relevant of the marketing mix.

 

2.2       THE FUNCTION OF PRODUCT PACKAGING

Stanton (1990) reviews the importance of packaging as follows:

  1. It protect the product from deterioration, damage, contamination, evaporation and chemical changed.
  2. It offers connivance in handling, storage an opening of package any stages.
  • It reduce transportation cost
  1. It provide opportunity for re-use
  2. It increase a favourable product image
  3. It establishes product differences
  • It establishes corporate identity and it gains display at retail shelf space

 

Objective of Product Packaging

  1. Increase Demand: Producer firm in order to maximize sales and there by improve profit list embarking on effective packaging of the company has to protect the goods to so as to increase demand.
  2. To Differentiate Product: There are many ways of differentiating one product from others and this brought about the idea of packaging quality.
  • To Protect the Product: For any packaging to be effective, it must serve as protection for product against deteriorating spoilage sales turnover of a business organization.
  1. Promotion: Packaging promotes the product by communicating its features, image, uses and benefits to the prospective buyers.
  2. Ecology: It provide opportunity for re-use and ensures that the surrounding is not littered with product packages.
  3. Information: It inform and educates users and sellers on handling and usage through prescription in food and pharmaceutical packaging.
  • Display: Packaging gains display at retail shelf space and provide a persuasive argument for purchasing the product.
  • Ease of Handling: Packaging enables both the marketer and the buyer to handle, open and close the product, in ease products such as a milk and sugar cannot be handled without packaging. Some packaged such as gallons are provides with handles for convenience.

 

Advantages of Packaging

David O. Anker (1990) highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of packaging

  1. Think of a cereal box, the is designed to attract the eye of the target market.
  2. The box markets the product i.e. heart-healthy now with more fibery goodness.
  • The box is larger than the contents so it appears to be a better value and take sup more self space.
  1. The box is easy to ship or to stock on the supermarket shelves space.
  2. The box may contain information of the product in the company inventory.
  3. The box protect the content from spoilage and damage and allows the consumer better quality product.

 

Disadvantages of Packaging

  1. Think of disadvantages except for increased consumer awareness about excess packaging waste or reducing some product use the fact they don’t use packaging or use limited packaging as a marketing tools to target the environment ally conscious consumer.
  2. If goods we are not properly packaged the goods may damage over use of chemical can destroy goods since the goods needs to be packaged.

THE IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL MIX ON CONSUMERS BUYING BEHAVIOUR (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BREWERIES PLC, AMSTEL MALTA)

ABSTRACT

In economic theory, various market structure about perfect competitors, monopolistic competitor, pure monopoly e.t.c. it is no gain saying that through the effort of these market structure, million of products flood our market day in day out, awaiting consumers to purchase.

In Some Instance consumers are not aware of the existence of these products which of course results in low sales and goals. Monopolistic completion aptly reflect the true picture of business operation in Nigeria where there are many companies selling identical but differentiated product. However, being in business is not worthwhile if producer are unable to make normal profit. This, to acquaint the consumer about their existence of a product, it well as getting them to patronize a product, it is vital importance for the producers to deviate a potent strategy capable of winning constitute soul toward a product and equally getting his convinced about the superiority of the product. No wonder them, the marketing department of different business concern evolved the use of the promotional tools as a strategy to address the mentioned situation.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title                                                                                                                                         i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of contents                                                                                                                    v-vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1       Statement of the problem                                                                                           1 – 2

1.2       Purpose of the study                                                                                                   2

1.3       Basic Assumption                                                                                                       2 – 3

1.4       Scope of the study                                                                                                      3

1.5       Limitation of the study                                                                                               3

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                            3 – 4

1.7       Definition of the concepts                                                                                          4 – 5

1.8       Statement of hypothesis                                                                                             5

1.9       Historical background of Nigeria Breweries Plc                                                        5 – 6

1.10     Functions of each department in organization chart                                                   7

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature review                                                                                                         8 – 10

2.1       Meaning and type of promotional mix                                                                       10 – 16

2.2       Consumer orientation                                                                                                  16 – 17

2.3       Consumer buying decision                                                                                          17 – 18

2.4       Objective of promotion                                                                                               18 – 19

2.5       The impact of promotional mix on consumer buying behaviour                                 19

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   20

3.1       Sources of data                                                                                               20

3.2       Personal interview                                                                                           20

3.3       Questionnaire                                                                                                  20 – 21

3.4       Study population                                                                                            21

3.5       Study sample                                                                                                  21

3.6       Method of data analysis                                                                                 21

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data presentation and analysis                                                                       22

4.1       Presentation of data                                                                                        22 – 28

4.2       Analysis based on research question                                                               28 – 31

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary of findings, recommendation ands conclusion                               32

5.1       Summary of finings                                                                                        32

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      33

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                            33 – 34

Appendix I                                                                                                      35

Appendix II                                                                                                    36 – 38

Bibliography                                                                                                   39

List of tables                                                                                                   40

Organizational Chart                                                                                       41

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

In economic theory, various market structure, about v.z perfect competition, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, pure monopoly etc. it is no gain saying that through the effort of these market structure. Million of product flood our market day in day out, awaiting consume to purchase them.

In some instances consumers are not aware of the existence of these products which of course result in low sales and glut monopolistic competition aptly reflects the true picture of business operation in Nigeria where there are many companies selling identical but differentiated products. However, being in business is not worthwhile if product are unable to make normal profile thus is acquaint the consumers about the existence of a product as well as getting them to patronizes a product, it is vital the importance lot the produce to deceives a potent strategy capable of winning constitute soul towards a products and equally getting him convinced about the sprinting of the product. No under then the marketing department of different business concerns evolved the use of promotional tools as a strategy to address the mentioned situation.

Promotional mix as on integral part of the marketing effort strives to release the goals laid out by sides policy and programme. Promotional mix. Consist of advertising, publicity, personal selling and sales promotion. It is no gain saying the million of products flood on market day in and day out awaiting consumers to purchase them, in some cases and occasions consumer do. In the world of competition therefore, promotional tools should be continuous tools in the hands of products to restores success to the patchy ugly business experiences.

 

1.1       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study is designed to verify

  1. Whether promotional mix really makes the consumers on what they do not really need.
  2. Beside there is a need to identify the type of promotional mix (tools) which carried really influence the consumer in making his / her choices.
  • Further more, the study also examines the effectiveness promotional tools on sales.

Actually some out of the promotional tools is advertising which are placed on radio and television. But we want to know if consumers really do remember any product in particular.

Where the cost of any promo does not common such note with the actual returns should the company continues with the use of such promo? Aside, if the intentions mix that could really be used to attract or convince consumers towards a particular product in the market.

Finally, the study is designed to find out if the consumers believe in the information that is being passed to them by any of the promotional actually used and do they (the consumers) consider a promotional activity which they watched or listened to before or while purchasing.

 

1.2       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of this study is to verify to which extent does all the promotional activities affect the choice of consumer while making or purchase and to verify the possible type of promotions which could be used in attracting the attach of the consumer towards the purchase which his / her might want to make.

My research is designed mainly to study and analyzed the impact of promotional mix on consumer buying behaviour on the products of Nigeria Breweries plc known as amestol maltal drink as a case study with the hope that the knowledge could be of immense contribution to the company is solving the problem of promotion actually encountered whole marketing her product to the find consumer. We wish to also study the kind of promotional tools which can be placed in order to achieve maximum demand for Amstel malta.

We also name the objective of assisting business organization in ways of creating stimulating and maintaining demand for their product in a nut shall, this study is designed to find out the following.

  1. To obtained some information concerning the attitude and buying behaviour of consumers.
  2. To search for some basic information on how promotional activity motivates the consumers choice.
  • To also determine whetted the expenditure used on promotion is justified, compare to the profit made on the promoted product and to verify whether the purchases behaviour of the consumer.

 

1.3       BASIC ASSUMPTION

There are series of assumptions or belief that “Promotional activity is not necessary by merely increasing the cost per unit of the product being promoted. Also others believes that promotional activity is capable of leading consumer along the line of predisposition to purchase.

At this junction, we can also add that a promo that is vary attractive and which leads that consumer from the awareness stage to preference stage to conversion stage and findly to the point of purchasing them if the consumer derive satisfaction after using the product there by having confidence in the product and still not feeling cheated (in believe has value for his money) there will be reinforcement by the consumer for that product from the promotion stage through the pretended stage the conversion stage leading to where the purchase is being made. If the consumer derives satisfaction, he would start or reinforce the whole cycle again but when or if the consumer is not satisfied with the product, he / she will definitely not go back to buy such a product again.

Awareness (promo)                                                     Preference decision

On best

Satisfaction                                                                 Convention

 

Dissatisfaction                                                                        Purchase

 

In this study, we also want to know the reason the receipt increase on the use of promotional tools both by manufacturing and service company which make consumers needs to be associated with their wants.

 

1.4       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study is focused on the effectiveness promotional activity on Amstel maltal. A product of Nigeria Breweries Plc. And we can using Ibadan as centre of the study since there could be fair representation of the consumer of Amstel maltal in these centers.

 

1.5       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

In the course of this research, the researches are limited to certain constraints that we are taking seriously into consideration such as financial constraints inadequate response from the audience and two constraints.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                                                 

This research exercise is believed to offer something worthwhile to business communities is acquitting to the need in their business operation with view to promoting more sales and making handsome profiles.

Besides, the study will be paramagnet importance to agencies in promotions framework or practitioners to inform the of the role promotion is playing in the life of any business concern and the need to intensify efforts in evolving potent strategies capable of convincing the consumer about the supremacist and usefulness to promote or advertise products. This will go a long way to boost and contain industries in Nigeria.

Furthermore, the study will also help prospecting researcher that they may sike to delve into the same topic.

Lastly, the study will inform institution of higher learning that after business courses to integrate promotional actually in their curricular having regard to the role of plays in the life of a given business concern as far as awareness and sales of product are concerned.

 

1.7       DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPTS

In the course of this research writing we will make use of certain concept which might be stage and not easily understandable by the people outside. This course of study or an ordinary lay man. This prompt to the reason why we have decided to .make the reading and understanding of this project more easier for every one who is opportune to read it.

Some of these concepts are listed below and briefly explained in business and marketing terms.

  1. Promotion: – This is a communication mix which decides with persuading others to accept the views that are expressed.
  2. Promotion mix: -It is a set of controllable variable and their levels that the firm uses to influence the target market.
  • A Market: – This simply means a place where people with common desire or need for a particular community or service meet. It could also means a place where people meet for the purpose of striking bargaining and exchange goods.
  1. Consumer: – A person who buys and uses goods and services.
  2. Consumers Behaviour: – May be define as the activities of people engaged in actual potential use of market items whether product and serviced retain environment ideals or concept etc.
  3. Sales Promotion: – Can be defines as those marketing activities other that personal selling advertising and publicity that stimulate consumer purchasing and dealer effectiveness.
  • Advertising: – This is the process of getting an ideal about a brand into the consumer head i.e. on idea which will can him / her towards purchase.
  • Publicity: Is any unpaid families personal presentation of ides, goods and services.
  1. Brand: – This is a class of goods which is the product of a particular firm or organization.
  2. Resources: – There are possessions inform of wealth and goods that help one organization to do. Three resources might being form of money, raw materials or even machine.
  3. Bonanza: – This refer to something vary profitability it can come inform of sales bonanza, whereby a buyer gets on additional benefit from buying a particular goods.
  • Respondent: – This is one or member of the public who can call our audience he / she is to give us response to the question we asked.

 

1.8       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Null Hypothesis (Ho): Promotional activities (mix) that is effective can still not manipulate a buyer into making a decision against this will.

 

Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): – Promotional activities (mix) that is effective can manipulate a buyer into making a decision against this will.

 

Null Hypothesis (Ho): Buyer do not react positively to company’s promotional activities.

 

Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): – Buy react positively to company promotional activities.

 

Null Hypothesis (Ho): Promotional mix cannot have the impact of misleading and misinforming in their buying behaviour.

 

Alternative Hypothesis (Hi): – Promotional can have the impact of misleading and misinforming in their buying behaviour.

 

1.9       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF NIGERIAN BREWERIES PLC

Nigeria Breweries Plc (N.B Plc) is a Nigeria pioneer brewery. This company started operation in 1949 with the initial production of star larger beer in June 1949 to be specific. The nation wide acclaimed of the production of the allegation of the nation favorite bear. In a bed to attain extensive geographical spread the company has but brewery plants ensure that it product are available in all hooks and enemies of Nigeria.

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM IN A MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF OKIN BISCUIT OFFA, KWARA STATE)

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page                                                                                               i

Certification                                                                                           ii

Dedication                                                                                             iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                 iv

Table of Content                                                                                    v

Abstract                                                                                                 vi – vii

 

Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                            1

1.1       Background of the study                                                        1 – 2

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                       2

1.3       Objective of the study                                                            2

1.4       Research question                                                                   2

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                                2 – 3

1.6       Significance of the study                                                        3

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                  3

1.8       Limitation of the study                                                           3 – 4

1.9       Definition of terms                                                                 4 – 5

1.10     Historical background of the study                                        5 – 6

1.11     Organizational chart of the case study                                   7

 

Chapter Two

2.0       Review of literature to the topic                                             8 – 16

2.1       Definition of marketing                                                          16

2.2       Definition of marketing information system                          16 – 18

2.3       Objective of marketing information system                           19

2.4       Importance of marketing information system to a

Manufacturing industry                                                         20  – 21

2.5       Function of marketing information system                             21

2.6       Limitation to marketing information system                          21

 

Chapter Three

3.0       Research methodology                                               22

3.1       Study population and sampling procedures                22

3.2       Study sample                                                              22

3.3       Sample size                                                                 22

3.4       Source of data collection                                            23

3.5       Questionnaire design                                                  23

3.6       Method of data analysis                                             23

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Data presentation, analysis and discussion                 24

4.1       Hypothesis testing                                                      24 – 30

4.2       Interpretation of hypothesis/Findings                         30

 

Chapter Five

5.0       Summary, conclusion and discussion                         31

5.1       Summary of finding                                                    31 – 32

5.2       Recommendation based on conclusion                       32

Appendix ii – bibliography /References                     33

Appendix ii- questionnaires                                        34 – 35

 

ABSTRACT

 The objective of this page is to have a breakdown or summary of the research work. It is therefore breakdown into various stages for easy understanding. The research work started with introduction of the significance of the study i.e. limiters on also message generation etc. The next one chapter two, the reason highlighted above suggests that the creation of conducting the research work in a conclusive environment is a prerequisite for achieving of organization success. Also in chapter three will describe population as all the item which come or otherwise e.g Total number of workers in Okin Biscuit Offa Kwara State in other view chapter four includes data presentation data, analysis and testing of hypothesis  while  chapter five   comprises of  summary, conclusion and, recommendation.


CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this project is to determine the roles of marketing information system in an organization with special reference to Okin Offa.

The firm makes use of marketing information system in order to cope with the dynamics environment the organization finds itself. However, marketing information system defined by various authors or marketer although all these definition are tailored towards the same meaning but framed in a deferent ways.

According to Philip Kotler 1984 “a marketing information system is continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment and procedure to gather sort analysis and disseminate pertinent timely and accurate information for use in marketing decision maker to improve their marketing planning ,implementation and control

Marketing information system “as defined by James A. (1998) defined marketing information system as “A structured, interacting complex of persons, machines and procedures designed to generate an orderly flow of pertinent information collected from both intra and extra-firm sources for use as the bases for decision making.

Marketing information system could also be define as a formal effort by management to systemize many information flow needed by a marketer so that marketing information will be available and flow useful to him.

Management can continually monitor the performance of products market sales people and other marketing utilities in greater details, also it a beneficial effect on management performance in small and medium sized firms.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

What effect does lack of marketing information system has on productivity:

  • What are the reason for this effect
  • How does lack of marketing information system cause frequent accident in population process.
  • Does lack of marketing information system has any effect on profitability
  • What are the types of pressure which lack of marketeering information can have on management.
  • What are the result of such pressure on the organization charity donation. And finally to analysis the organization contribution to the economy development of its locality state and the nation as a whole.
  • How can lack of marketing information system leads to industrial action.
  • What are the effect of such actions on the organization.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of this study is to realize the extent to which the marketing information system can contribute to the development of organization in Nigeria with a special attention to Okin Biscuit Limited Offa as a case study.

This study has it advantages towards improving the sales margin or profit and to know the impact of the structure and function of marketing towards the survival of Okin Biscuit Limited Offa, the main objective of this study is also enumerated below:

  1. To examine the problem and possible measure of marketing in Okin Biscuit Limited Offa.
  2. To know contribution of industries to the nation
  3. To examine the assistance that marketing informal could render to company, its significance and success.
  4. To provide necessary suggestion on what government could do to assist the industries.
  5. To examine the problem being uncounted by the individual in neglecting the role of marketing information system.
  6. To provide necessary suggestion on how marketing information system could be effectively made use of.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The significance of marketing information system in a manufacturing industry engaged a deal in production, distribution and marketing of biscuit, other products, some of the services rendered by the company are as follows:

  • Manufacturing of biscuit e.g Okin Biscuit, glucose biscuit etc.
  • Production of assaulted biscuit

 

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

The following hypothesis are use for these research work:

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between marketing information system and customer.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between marketing information system and growth of the manufacturing firm.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

  1. The study will enable us to focus on the role of marketing and its effects on production distribution and marketing,
  2. It enables us to offer or prescribe solution to those organizations that are facing problem with marketing information system and also its uses.
  3. It will enable as to stimulate increase, interest on the part of marketing student and also business organization in general.
  4. It will help to search into the improvement of marketing information system and how marketing information system can be used as an effective tool to boast state and improve organization productivity.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The significant of marketing information system in a manufacturing industry. A case study of Okin Biscuit Offa, Kwara State Marketing information system is an organizing way of continually gathering and analyzing data to provide marketing managers with information they need to make decision in some companies MIS set up marketing specialist in other companies. It is set up by a group that provide all department in the firm information’s.

The application of some MIS provides marketing managers with a decision support system. A Decision Support System (DSS) is a complete programme that makes it easy for a marketing manager to get and use information as he or she is making decision.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

There is nothing in life without limitation; this is the main reason that limitations to marketing information system are discussed here.

The quality of data to be collected depend greatly on the level of expenses of staff to which the questionnaire will be distributed to and their personal view on Marketing Information System (MIS):

  1. Time: This is also a constraints, for instance taking the presence of committed personnel, time spent in collection of errors and getting the necessary foots together.
  2. Finance: Financing the project has also proved serious draw beak concerning research work and conclusively despite those various limitations, a comprehensive and detailed research work has to be designed to solve the problem to reasonable extent.
  3. Non-readiness of staff to give information
  4. Respondent attitude

 

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

We took plans in giving definition of various terms used in this study so that it will be possible for the readers to have full knowledge of marketing information system without being marketer and also to make the work more comprehensive.

  1. Controllable Variable: These are variable that can be controlled by the marketer in solving the marketing problems of the organization. These controllable by the marketer in solving the marketing problems of the organization. These controllable variables are prices, product distribution or place and promotion.
  2. Data: These are bits place of fact which usually do not provide meaning, unless when processed or analysis to become information (meaning knowledge).
  3. Data Collection: This is an activity aimed at getting information to satisfy same decision objectives the process of collection varies and depends.
  4. Information: Information is an acquired knowledge that has meaning in most cases information elites some reaction or responses on the part of the receiver i.e. information affect behaviour, observable behaviour (changing or attitude because of the information).
  5. Marketing: Marketing is a set of activities that facilitate the exchange transaction involving economic goods and services for the ultimate purpose involve in planning and to create exchange that satisfied organization objectives.
  6. Marketing Environment: This is the environment where marketing activities are being carried out is sub divided into external & external environment. The external forces can or be controlled by the firm while the internal can be controlled e.g.
    1. The macro environment
    2. The market for the product
    3. The organization environment
  7. Marketing Intelligence: This is the set of procedures and services used by the about pertinent development in the marketing environment.
  8. Marketing Research: This may be define as the objective and systematic collected, recording analysis interpretation and reporting of information about existing or tracts and interaction between markets marketing method and current or potential product or services.
  9. Primary Data: These are data collected by researcher usually for the first time specially for the purpose of solving the research problem the data are usually from interview, journal newspaper and textbooks.
  10. Secondary Data: These are data that have been collected for the purpose of solving another research problem or data collected for other purpose other than that of the research being understanding.  
  11. Uncontrollable Variable: These are variables that can not be ordinarily controlled by the marketers and are therefore classified as environment constraints they include competition, the role of technology, the state of the economy consumers suppliers and middlemen the physical environment such as natural societies with its culture.
  12. Variables: These are characteristics process by the number of the population, these characteristics may be only in manner of controlling or how to attend to marketing situation.

 

1.10     HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

The company Okin Biscuit Nigeria was in co-operate in Nigeria as a private company in 1978 under the name of Okin group of company Nigeria Limited. Some of the objectives of the group include providing goods and services such as biscuit, foam and malt drinks essential to the citizen in the area of operation while meeting government imposed regulation.

To maximize profit as to meet divided expected of the stockholders and to improve the standard of the citizen of the country. To expand operation and to perform some charitable acts there by adding to the quality of life of the citizen.

Currently the company has three factories the first factory and the head office is located at Offa via Ijagbo Kwara State.

This company started with the production of biscuit using international raw materials operation of this factory and been further developed over the years into the manufacturing of different size of shape of biscuit with different type of packaging. The second factory which was commissioned in other to get into production day job later in the year 1991 Okin group of company decided to get into the production of malt drinks but there sample product of the malt tested hygienic more research was conducted aim to improve the tested of the malt into a more standard acceptable quality.

In 1992 designed tested of improve malt drink was acquired immediately Okin Malt drink manufactures in the company.

Okin group of companies started operation with about 50 employee’s and present it is manufacturing company in Nigeria, it employees approximately 1500 employee of various categories which are mostly Nigerians.

The affairs of the company are managed and directed on behalf of the shareholders by us board of director main responsibility is a policy where formulated accordingly with the company. The company the policies are interpreted disseminated by the managing director with the assistance of his deputy to the head of development for execution.

The company have five department namely marketing account and finance, co-operate affairs personnel and commercial departments, each of this department is loaded by directors who has some workers under him which assist him in caring out the company aims and objectives.