This project takes artificial look at the methods, procedures used in carrying out the product packaging as tools for promotional programme. To be precise, the project takes Unilever Nigeria plc Lagos as a case study. The study deals with the introduction of the research work where emphasis was placed on general introduction of the enquiry relevance was however reviewed on concept and classification of product packaging and various promotional techniques. Also, this project focuses on the methodology employed in the research work, it contains research design of questionnaire were thoroughly analyzed and the findings were properly presented and three working hypothesis earlier formulated were tested. Concluded with major research findings, summary for futures researchers.
LIST OF TABLES
- Sex distribution
- Age distribution
- Marital status
- Educational qualification
- In the organization
- Income distribution
- What does packaging mean to you?
- What will you say is the objective of packaging?
- Packaging can be divided into?
- Which of these characteristic of packaging is best know to you?
- What are the factors to be considered in product packaging?
- What are the means adopted by the company in transporting
their packaged product to the final consumer?
- Which of these function can be organization take advantage of
- What are the type of packaging adopted by company in product
- What are the packaging strategy adopted by the company in product
- What factors to be considered in choosing method of transport
for product packaging?
- How does product packaging increase organization sales turnover?
- How does effective product packaging help company product?
- What are the various factor that contribute to packaging growth
use as a marketing tools.
- What are the affect packaging decision for a new product in your company?
- What are the element of packaging as a tool for sales turnover?
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page i
Table of Content v – vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 1
1.3 Objective of the study 2
1.4 Research question 2
1.5 Research hypothesis 2
1.6 Significance of the study 2
1.7 Scope of the study 3
1.8 Limitation of the study 3
1.9 Definition of terms 3 – 4
1.10 Historical background of the case study 4 – 5
2.0 Literature review 6
2.1 Definition of packaging 6 – 7
2.2 Categories of packaging 7 – 9
2.3 Types of and method of packaging 9 – 10
2.4 Packaging policies and strategies 10 – 11
2.5 The product stages before packaging 11 – 12
2.6 Packaging trends 12 – 15
2.7 Function and important of packaging
2.8 Factors to consider in the selection of right packaging
2.9 Packaging as means of transportation
2.10 Dispatch documentation of buying and selling of packaging
3.0 Research methodology 16
3.1 Procedures study population and sampling
3.2 Study sample 16
3.3 Sample size 16
3.4 Source of data collection 16
3.5 Questionnaire design
3.6 Method of data analysis 16 – 17
4.0 Data presentation, analysis and discussion 18
4.1 Hypothesis testing 18 – 20
4.2 Interpretation of hypothesis findings 20
5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendation 26
5.1 Summary of finding 26
5.2 Conclusion drawn from the findings 26
5.3 Recommendation based on conclusion 26 – 27
5.4 Suggestion for further studies 27
Appendix I 29
Appendix II 30 – 31
List of tables 32
Organization chart 33
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The product packaging as a tool for boosting sales volume in manufacturing industries cannot be over-emphasized for the fact that it is a way of developing the nations economy. In respect to this project, product packaging in a business organization will be dealt with. This is a distinction between the terms “packaging which is not always clear.
In this study product packaging is used for the general operation of putting goods into container for shipment and storage or it can be taken as the act of placing before selling to the general public. They are material that protects the actual product from weather and other destructive agents.
Product packaging container (often in mass production) for the packaging of product or goods particularly, those pass into domestic and international market.
Prior to the advent of product packaging, a generalization of ideas that about then the product have been identified and planning will be based upon selection of best alternatives, also the testing of market through research and development with the best alternative idea collected.
Sometimes, it is done by immediate environmental factor, for instance the employees or specific set of people. These set of people have to pass their comment as to whether the product is all right in term of size, shape, colour and utility after which the product will be taken to the entire public through product packaging.
Product packaging is the most paramount aspect in the incoming or outgoing product goods. It services some vital purpose to the goods, consumer and as well as producers in boosting the sale volume of the product question, such as protection trade appeal, consumer convince image coordination, sales volume promotion, deign coordination of the product and as a product utility factors.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
In spite of the various opportunities that product packaging confer on organization effectiveness, efficiency, few problem are still in existences which as follows:
- In ability of management to adopt to prevailing changes in modern product packaging.
- Lack of personnel that are proficient to handle product packaging as a tool for boosting sales volume.
- Some industries that are willingly to embark on it are prevented by the associated cost.
- In most cases, some consumers are been scare to purchase the product of the company, that is consumers substandard product does to its price.
- Lastly, it requires extra time and technological changes.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study are as follows:
- The examine the product packaging as a tool for boosting the sale volume in manufacturing industries.
- To examine the general concept and trend in sales volume in manufacturing industries.
- To investigates how an industry could adopt itself to prevailing changes in business organization.
- To examine how to build desirable flexibility into packaging goods to meet future requirement at a minimum cost.
- To examine various method of packaging in order to ensure that suitable product for incoming supplies and shipment is available.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
This research project attempt to answer the following research questions.
- Does product packaging has any significant relationship with sales volume.
- Does failure in packaging for formulation has any significant relationship to all department in the organization.
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
Ho: There is no significant relationship between packaging and sale in manufacturing industries
Hi: There is significant relationship between packaging and sale in manufacturing industries.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between failure in packaging formulation to all department in the organization.
Hi: There is significant relationship between failure in packaging formulation to all department in the organization.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study is to examine any strategies, approaches or method of packaging that could be used in any manufacturing industries for boosting sales volume of their products.
In addition purposely want to book into how customers will react to production of the product strategy on sales volume of Unilever Nigeria Plc.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The volume is very broad in prospective product packaging management encompasses it. This product will reveal all issue related to packaging as management function as a tool for boosting sales volumes and area of study include: introduction to topic product packaging as a tools for boosting sales volume in manufacturing industries.
Literature reviews, field or research limitation and recommendation.
The findings consist of this Unilever Nigeria plc, then generalized for the entire organization setting of the Unilever Nigeria plc, the Lagos Apapa braches were used, testing and design of containers for product packaging and dispatch documentation.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following were the problems.
- Time: A unique limitation of this work couple with class assignment, lectures and methodology employed limited the of this project.
- Financials Constrains: Were another obstacle that restricted in producing detailed project on product on product packaging process of goods.
- Lack of Reference Materials: No enough references material, that really centre on this research topic, such as text books restricted the scope of the project.
- Collection of Data Information: Limitation in this regard was due to official protocol and secrecy of the company and the policies adopted.
- Non-Chalant Attitude of Staff: Most of the senior staffs and management were not willing and ready to supply information they counted it as way of disturbance to their official duty.
All the same, systematic approach, friends posture and others made series of interviews possible, but not without hitch and frustration here and there.
1.9 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE COMPANY
The company First came into existence in Nigeria and incorporated as a private company under Unilever West Africa Soap Company and later to Unilever Nigeria Limited in 1955.
In retrospect precisely in 1923, the company received public recognition, it substituted the word “Limited” in its name with plc to become Unilever Nigeria plc.
Unilever Nigeria plc, strengthened its foot in Food and drinks business by its merger with Lipton Nigeria plc in July 1985, and on the personal product business by merging with chance product industries limited in December 1988.
Currently, Unilever Nigeria plc, operate three factories which are located at Apapa, Aba, and Agbara in different state of the Federation, Lagos, Imo, and Delta respectively. The company. The company started business of producing bar soap using palm oil, in the Apapa which was commissioned in 1924, ever since expansion has taken place to include the population of international toilet soap product like, lux, stral, respondent and close-up tooth paste and petroleum jelly are manufacture at a papa to show product mix.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Strategy: This can be defined as the adoption of course of actions or the use of resources to attain competitive objectives, it is a link between what the organization want to achieve and polices adopted to guide its activities.
Sales: This is an act of having product by the producer disposed to the final and ultimate consumer at or it is a process of changing the producer product with money ahs a profit.
Boosting: This is a market strategy aimed at communicating to the target consumers and the market that the right product is available at the right price. It include advertising sales promotion personal selling and public relation.
Product: This is the result of transforming raw materials into finished goods by exert energy, mean of power and time.
Preservation or Protective Coat: This is the process or methods suitable for goods or materials which are forwards out or loaded in warehouse need anti-corrosive or other protection.
Open creates of base boards: This is the system of product packaging which provide stability for goods or plant coverage e.g heavy machine or similar plant.
Particular sales container: A soft protective that can be easily removed on the arrival at the destination.
Bale and Trusses: The type of packaging which does not protect the good or material against stock in stocking.
Wool: This is material used in preventing moisture against the goods in the store, for the preservation and protection of maintenance spear parts and also in transit of packaging.
Cushioning: This is a rubber material used in packaging.
Advice Note: This is a note that give the purchaser the minimal notice of good.
Delivery Note: This is evidence, that the goods have been delivered.
Consignment Note: This is the hawkers carriers receipt for goods and evidence of delivering the goods accordingly.
Packaging Note: This is a document that shows what each individual package contains.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
It is intension of this chapter for review the works of the earliest writer on effectiveness of packaging on the organization product the research also consulted textbooks and other relevant on packaging.
Bennett P. (1992) sees packaging a habit or process of developing coverage or housing for product to prevent it from destruction agents and damages and also to make the products to be attractive in the sight of the prospective consumer and it also influence sales. He argues further that packaging of the product of an organization contribute to the achievement of the company.
Oxford Advance dictionary explain packaging as an objective wrapped in paper or packed in a box or practice it is identified with container or mental or plastic container. In Africa most consumer buys product on the basis a luxury decoration of the packaging.
Oyeniyi (1990) explain packaging as an act of placing a product in a special package before selling to the public. It is the material that protects the products from weather and other destructive agents in this ways, we are talking in terms of containers for our product.
Stanton W.J (1991) define packaging as the way and the manner by which a product is being packed to suit the consumers interest. And people views, he argues further that people view production packaging on various ways, because some prefer package merchandises and more than safe or attractive container for goods. It also refer packaging as the medium means of conveying advertisement message and product are important in the sight of the consumer due to the material used for its package.
Gills (1994) sees packaging as a cover or guide that protect manufactured product so as to prevent it against spoilage or deteriorate, he argue further that the effective packaging help the management and customer to store deteriorated materials until its needed, he identify the following importance of packaging.
- It helps the management to transfer its product from point of production to the consumer.
- It also served as protection for the organization product
- Packaging also help the consumer to identify a company product from another.
- Packaging also add to the attractive of the organization.
- It helps in effective storage.
Charles D.S (1990) explain packaging as a tool which direct the attention of the consumer, that is packaging and advertising are used together because package and its design are seen as an advert, therefore promote organization sales.
Stanton (1998) define packaging as the general group of activities in product planning on which involve designing and production, is the part of product planning on which a researcher designs and produce it packaging.
A package is (product) physical container and this may include a card board, box, glass, aluminum or plastic or paper, bar Styrofoam or combination of these products frequently have more than one physical container for example, cereal is shipped in large cardboard boxes.
Boone (2000) describes it as a vital part of the total product as it gives or offers protection for the production while simultaneously performing a promotional taste side.
A package has major function according to Boone (1980) container and promotion contaminate in the essential efficiency in physical distribution while the promotional aspect of packaging operate to influence demand, problem of contaminate tend to be tactical and reasonably objective such as requirement as to strength, size and resistance to moisture and other chemical elements promotional requirement concern such things as the package ability to attract attention. Its adaptability to advertising and so on.
He expresses development of a package to serve those functional well as more subjective process. Although technical problems of disallowing produce to spread are very difficult one’s source product must produces, the promotional aspect of packaging posses the most difficult decision requirement. Packaging as apart of marketing strategy is today largely approached from a system point of views. This as become important aspect of a firm marketing programme. Some product become externally difficult to differentiate many consumer goods are so similar that without the fancier brand of trade market on the packaged, buyer would not be able to tell the difference among them for example brand of drugs. This packaging must be treated as part of marketing management rather than as strictly technical problem in the physical landing packaging must be judged from the following criteria. The packaging informative and promotional value the state of goods as recently the role of packaging designing physical distribution.
Oyeniyi (2000) explain that packaging is an act of placing a product in a feature of the adding sense. In the olding days (mostly consumable items) carrying their wears to the market on shells for sales with out carrying much about the immediate or outer package of the bonus or arts in carrying them to the market place, some of these e.g vegetable are some thing wrapped in newspaper, leaves, etc which does not allow for convenience of having to the consumer.
A consumer would be able to satisfy him self, herself particular product when the product is offered in a reasonable level of profit to the manufactured, however, for a manufacturing firm to be able to rise to this challenge by providing the good necessary to satisfy these needs where, when and how these product are wanted to be packed in something (container) that must give the consumer or use a much latter time, some months or weeks after purchase e.g leverage or sweat and several rule away from where they are manufactured.
Packaging according to Kotter (1997) include the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Since the cannot be sold naked (without any container) the entire activities of providing. It also include in material of which the package is made the unique colours, graphics, and symbols used to differentiate a brand of product from other brands. The importance of packaging to the modern marketers lies in its extensive use. The importance of packaging in today marketing decision making has encourage some marketers to treat packaging as another relevant of the marketing mix.
2.2 THE FUNCTION OF PRODUCT PACKAGING
Stanton (1990) reviews the importance of packaging as follows:
- It protect the product from deterioration, damage, contamination, evaporation and chemical changed.
- It offers connivance in handling, storage an opening of package any stages.
- It reduce transportation cost
- It provide opportunity for re-use
- It increase a favourable product image
- It establishes product differences
- It establishes corporate identity and it gains display at retail shelf space
Objective of Product Packaging
- Increase Demand: Producer firm in order to maximize sales and there by improve profit list embarking on effective packaging of the company has to protect the goods to so as to increase demand.
- To Differentiate Product: There are many ways of differentiating one product from others and this brought about the idea of packaging quality.
- To Protect the Product: For any packaging to be effective, it must serve as protection for product against deteriorating spoilage sales turnover of a business organization.
- Promotion: Packaging promotes the product by communicating its features, image, uses and benefits to the prospective buyers.
- Ecology: It provide opportunity for re-use and ensures that the surrounding is not littered with product packages.
- Information: It inform and educates users and sellers on handling and usage through prescription in food and pharmaceutical packaging.
- Display: Packaging gains display at retail shelf space and provide a persuasive argument for purchasing the product.
- Ease of Handling: Packaging enables both the marketer and the buyer to handle, open and close the product, in ease products such as a milk and sugar cannot be handled without packaging. Some packaged such as gallons are provides with handles for convenience.
Advantages of Packaging
David O. Anker (1990) highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of packaging
- Think of a cereal box, the is designed to attract the eye of the target market.
- The box markets the product i.e. heart-healthy now with more fibery goodness.
- The box is larger than the contents so it appears to be a better value and take sup more self space.
- The box is easy to ship or to stock on the supermarket shelves space.
- The box may contain information of the product in the company inventory.
- The box protect the content from spoilage and damage and allows the consumer better quality product.
Disadvantages of Packaging
- Think of disadvantages except for increased consumer awareness about excess packaging waste or reducing some product use the fact they don’t use packaging or use limited packaging as a marketing tools to target the environment ally conscious consumer.
- If goods we are not properly packaged the goods may damage over use of chemical can destroy goods since the goods needs to be packaged.