WORKERS MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION IN NIGERIA BUSINESS ORGANIZATION (A Case Study of Lagos Airport Hotel Limited Ikeja, Lagos State)

 

ABSTRACT

This is an explosive study aimed at examining different form of motivation took employed by the organization and job satisfaction derived from the motivation Premier Hotel Ibadan worker were studies. The questionnaire methods of collecting data administering one hundred motivations as well as improving workers efficiently in Hotel. These suggestions include, upward review of workers salaries a more affection promotion system, respect a workers opinion, for treatment and good leadership. This study is divided into five chapters, chapter one deals with introduction, chapter two deals with the literature review, chapter three focuses on the research were analysis and statistical test applied to test the hypothesis generated the whole study is summarized and recommendation made there after in chapter five.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Approval Page                                                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the Study 1-2
  • Statement of the Problem 3
  • Research Question and Hypothesis 4
  • Purpose of the Study 4
  • The Scope of Delimitation of the Study 4
  • Limitation of the Study 4
  • The Significance of the Study 4
  • Definition of Terms.                                                                         5

 

CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related  Literature

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                    6-10

2.2       Nature of Motivation                                                                                      10

2.3       Reason for Motivation and Job Satisfaction                                                  12

2.4       Problem Associated with Motivation and Job Satisfaction                            13

 

CHAPTER THREE

Research Methodology                                                                                               14

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             14

3.2       Area of Study                                                                                                 14

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                  14

3.4       Sample and Sampling Procedure                                                                    14

3.5       Instrument from Data Collection                                                                    15

3.6       Method of Data Collection                                                                             15

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               16

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis                                                                      17-21

4.2       Test of Hypothesis                                                                                          21-22

 

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of Findings, Recommendation & Conclusion                                            23

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         23

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      23

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                            24

References                                                                                                      25

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Since the industrial revolution of 17th and 18th centuries in France and Europe respectively. Many organization have been striving to meet up with the challenges of effective utilization of human resources in order to achieve the desire objectives of the organizations.

Researchers have shown that to achieve the set objectives and goals more emphasis has to be laid on human resources personal, hence motivation of personnel is highly needed. The objective of an organization must be achieved no matter what it will take the management.

To accomplish it, it has been discovered that workers satisfaction and motivation leads to workers giving their best thereby heading to maximum production. Motivation of workers has been a major concern to many organizations as a result of economic hardship making many workers lament over inability to cope with challenging economic challenges thereby making them to life blood normal living conditions. A workers shoes needs cannot be met his employer i.e. Organization tends not to be committed to such work. In order to ensure that there is commitment and efficiency for work, organization should employ different types of motivation tools. According to Atkinson (1961:12) ‘Motivation has to do with the analysis of various factors which include and security were studies leading to the introduction of positive incentive like extra money for the work, promotional incentives as well as negatives sanction like reduction in pay and termination of appointment.

Motivation can also be conventionalized as the condition responsible for variation in intensity; quality and direction of on given behavior, the condition are both extrinsic and intrinsic to the individual. While motivation refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want, satisfaction refers to the drive and effort to satisfy a want, satisfaction refers to the contentment experience when a want is satisfied. The amount and benefits a person fells he should receive has been fund to strongly influenced by what he perceived other like himself and receiving.

People seem to balance what they are putting into a work situation against what they are getting out of and then compare their balance with the others. If  this comparison reveals that their outcomes are inequitable with those of other people, then dissatisfaction results.

It is important to not that not all motivational tools employed by an organization bring job satisfaction on the part of the workers have the same orientation values and perception of life. Hotel, which ha many units department like “Lagos Airport”, Hotel Limited are faced with the problem of identifying the appropriate motivational tools for all the categories of workers. For instance, Lagos Airport Hotel has the following department.

  1. House keeping
  2. Food and Beverages
  3. Front office
  4. Maintenance
  5. Personnel
  6. Administrative
  7. Marketing
  8. Accounting

These department are sub-divided into section such as:

  1. Housing Keeping Department
  2. House keeping central office section
  3. Laundry section
  4. Laundry shop section
  5. Flour shop section
  6. Swimming pool section
  7. Horticulture section
  8. Food and Beverage Department
  9. Bar section
  10. Kitchen section
  11. Restaurant section
  12. Banquet section
  13. Bakers shop
  14. Front Office Department
  15. Reception
  16. Porters carbine
  17. Commissioners
  18. Telephone
  19. Duty Test
  20. Maintenance Department
  21. Plumbing
  22. Wielding
  23. Carpentry
  24. Mason (Bricklayer)
  25. Electrical/Electronic
  26. Accounting Department
  27. Accounting control
  28. Wages
  29. Ledger
  30. Computer Room
  31. Billing
  32. Purchasing
  33. Store control

The above section among other makes it difficult a bit for the personnel manager to successfully introduce motivational tools in the various departments. For workers to give their best and also to realize organizational goals and objectives. It is important for management to look into the needs of the workers and ways of satisfying them, factors such as wages, supervision, job security, condition of service, welfare and the like are various degrees of satisfaction which have and related to the job. Most times as seen an individual have been recruited, trained and assigned duties, it is believed by management that there is no need to create condition that will facilitate a high level of performance and also make it possible for individual to erect same of heir most important needs hence the situation arises job dissatisfaction which is unfavourable to the organization.\

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Many Nigeria organizations both private and public are currently faced with individual tools that would have approved in these organizations. The strike phenomenon portrays organization bed consequently affecting their public relation and productivity.

 

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS

In order for this study to be properly guided the following hypothesis are formulated in and hypothesis form.

Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between workers motivation and jobs satisfaction in Nigeria Business Organization.

Hi: There is significant relationship between workers motivation and jobs satisfaction in Nigeria Business Organization.

 

1.4       PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This study is aimed at identification of the motivation tools employed by Nigeria organization, examine the relationship between motivation and jobs satisfaction. Finally, suggesting ways of maintaining jobs satisfaction among workers through motivation strategies.

 

1.5       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This is to discover what is it that triggers motivation and sustains human behavior in jobs satisfaction of an organization this project work is focus in the workers motivation and job satisfaction of Lagos Airport Hotel Limited as one of the non-manufacturing company.

 

1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study was faced with the problem of uncooperative attitude of the respondents and the organization itself that can be summarized as;

  1. Bureaucratic Procedure stipulated by the organization such as filling of visitor form, written permission from the administration section were time wasting.
  2. Concernment of information concerning the motivation tools employed in the organization
  3. Refused to attend to the research team by respondents and some key information.

 

1.7       THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is of great importance to business managers in general and personal management experts in particular student of accountancy as well as business administration will also find the study useful.

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THE ROLE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM AND ITS EFFECTS ON MANAGEMENT DECISION MAKING IN BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA)

ABSTRACT

This research work has been specially conducted to examine the role(s) of management information system and its effect on management decision making in banks with particular emphasis on the United Bank for Africa. The study seeks purposely to examine deeply into the important and effect of MIS in an organizational decision making and its relationship to planning and control and effective functioning of manager. Meanwhile, research also given detail explanation of the procedures followed in arriving at any conclusion. This research was carrying out to finding method of data collection in the course. It is the techniques that deal with hypothesis testing which enable the researcher to have good knowledge of the approach. Despite all odds and difficult encountered by the researcher during the course of this research work several recommendation has been preferred in increasing problem on effective handling of materials.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                          iv

Abstract                                                                                                          v

Table of Contents                                                                                           vi-vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1
    • Background of the Study 1
    • Statement of the Problem 2
    • The purpose of the study 2
    • Significance of the study 3
    • Scope and Limitation of the Study 3
    • Research question and / or Hypothesis 3
    • Organization of the Study 4
    • Definition of Terms 4

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review 6
    • Introduction to computer system 6
    • What is MIS? 12
    • The level of information System             14
    • The essence of good information 15
    • Effect of decision making 16
    • MIS and Business Decision 16
    • Profile of UBA 16

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology 18
    • Introduction 18
    • Research Design 18
    • Population of the study 19
    • Sampling Techniques 19
    • Instrument of data Collection 19
    • Administration of research Instrument 20
    • Methods of Data Presentation 20

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Presentation and Analysis 21
    • Introduction 21
    • Data Interpretation 21
    • Testing of Hypothesis 25
    • General Comments 31

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 33
    • Summary 33
    • Conclusion 34
    • Recommendation 34

Appendix I                                                                                          35

Appendix II                                                                                        36

References                                                                                          37-38

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The management information is an integrated machine system that provides information to support the planning and control function of managers in business and in most other types of organization.

There must be obvious applications for the decision making, planning and control of management activities.

In today’s highly dynamic and competitive advantages business environment, organizing visions arise to facilitate the development and diffusion information system (IS) innovations across firms and industries. While their buzz is therefore important, at different times, “Management information system”. ‘Decision support systems’ ‘Expert systems’ and forth, have been the buzzwords under which globalization of business and the merging of computers and communication technology have redefined the way in which organizations operates and compete in such environment. So organization visions are understood to arise because they serve three basic functions in the creation and promotion of information system innovation, legitimating and mobilization to embrace new technology changing.

These changes necessitate that executives working need more effective ways to analyze their environment competition to guide their operation and human skills for organizational survival and success which requires that relevant and accurate information must be made and available to the (CEOs) to assist them in decision-making.

The role of management information systems is described and analyzed in light of its capability for decision making. Decision making process and its impact on top level management in a business organization is explained with an emphasis on automated decision making.

Limitations and challenges of MIS are discussed and a set of six recommendations proposed for increasing and effectiveness of MIS in the decision making process.

However, despite their seeming consensus, the real contribution of advertising to co-operate performance is viewed with skeptism among certain quarters.

In view of the above, this study seek to epically explore the impact advertising has on the performance of cooperate business with special focus on United Bank for Africa.

In summary, management information system provides support for largely structural planning and control task through routine report. Traditionally, a control department like MIS as play, the role of designing the implementing MIS with the popularity of personal computer and use computing has become possible where and users directly communicate with the (PCS) personal computer system.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Inadequate attention has been given to management information system and many students have not been able to carry out research on it. The project intends to ascertain how management information system affects effectiveness of decision making an organization.

Information is very important to all organization be it profit making or non-profit making organization. It creates awareness for a product and enlightens people about the existence of any business or association. Effective application of information plays an important role for the success of all financial institutions.

Based on that, it is necessary to find out whether banks make use of information effectively or not. What are the problems confronting banks especially UBA in terms of information did they advertise their products as other banks do if they segment. These are the key problems that the research is seeks to address.

 

1.3       THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study seeks to examine deeply into the importance and effect/impact/role of (MIS) management information system in an organization and its relationship to planning and controlling much effective functioning of managers.

 

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research work shall examine the following:

  1. Contribute to the already existing knowledge of management information system.
  2. This examine its usefulness to the organization
  3. The significance of the research to United Bank for Africa will address a number of issues related to their day to day administration.
  4. Be of valuable importance any management students, as a way of improving their knowledge and such of MIS.

 

1.5       SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The study is aimed at finding the effectiveness of management information system on the performance of the United Bank for Africa, PLC. However, it is very difficult to have access to all the “needed” information in undertaking this study. In view of this, the study is limited to the little information collected from records being kept by the Bank and responses from employees of the organization through interviews.

Therefore, the essence of MIS is an everyday assignment of decision of a manager created a motivation and interest to research in it.

The study was further constrained by lack of sufficient time, lack of money and above all, the secrecy over record keeping system of banking industry.

 

1.6       RESEARCH QUESTION

The research study is general forwards obtaining relevant information and also serve as interview guide to derive information  needed.

Ho – There is no significant relationship between MIS and decision making process.

Hi – There is significant relationship between MIS and decision making process.

Ho – There is no significance relationship between MIS and organizational productivity

Hi – There are significant relationship between MIS and organization productivity.

Ho – There is no significant relationship between MIS and effectiveness of managers.

Hi – There is significant relationship between MIS and effectiveness of managers.

THE NATURE, CAUSES AFFECT AND REMEDY FOR BANK FRAUD IN NIGERIAN

ABSTRACT

            This paper is descriptive in nature and it examines the nature, causes affect and remedy for bank fraud in Nigerian. In recent years fraud in Nigerian banking sector seemed to have assumed a frightening dimension and to a large extent, the confidence the general public reposes in it, is put in jeopardy the ability of banks to promote growth and development in any economy is a function of the extent to which financial transaction are carried out with trust, confidence and least risk.

These no doubt require a safe and sound banking practice which many of the banks in Nigerian today have despised to their own peril.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Content

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Research Question

1.4       Hypothesis of the Study

1.5       The Objective of the Study

1.6       The Scope of the Study

1.7       Limitation of the Study

1.8       The Significant of the Study

1.9       Definition of Terms.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review

2.1       Introduction

2.2       Why People Commit Fraud

2.3       Insider or Employee Fraud

2.4       Outsider Fraud

2.5       Advance Fee Fraud

2.6       Cheque Bitting

2.7       Forge Cheque

2.8       Account Opening Fraud

2.9       Management Fraud

2.10     Money Transfer Fraud

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       population of the Study

3.4       sample and Sample Procedure

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection

3.6       Method of Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data Presentation
  • Data Analysis
  • Testing of Hypothesis

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary
  • Conclusion
  • Recommendation

Appendix

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Background of the Study

Among the Nigeria industrial sector today one can say that the banking industry is the most unsible and arouse the most public interest. The importance of the banking sector in any economy stems forms its roles of financial intermediation, provision of efficient payment system and facilitation of the implementation of monetary policies. In intermediation, banks mobilize saving from the surplus units of the economy and channel these funds to the deficit unit, particularly private business enterprises for the purpose of expanding their productive capacity.

According to Olismbu (1991:20) the banking sector as became of the most critical sector and commanding heights of the economy with wide implication on the level and direction of economy growth and transformation and on such sensitive issue as the rate of unemployment and inflation which directly affect the lives of our people. Today, the very integrity and survivability of these laudable functions of Nigerian banks have been called into question in view of incessant frauds and accounting scandals.

According to Oseni (2006:16) “the incessant fraud in the banking industry are getting to a level at which many stakeholders in the industry are loosing their trust and confidence in the industry”.

Corroborating the views of Oseni idolo (2010:63) stressed that the spate of fraud in Nigerian banking sector has lately become a source of embarrassment to the nation as apparent in the seeming attempts of the law enforcement agencies to successful track down the culprits.

 

1.2       Statement of The Problem

The phenomenon called fraud can be explain under the following causes: There are many reasons for the upsurge and increase of frauds in the bank industry.

Most of the reported cases are staff aided those arise as a result of the level of exposure or ignorance on the part of staff, for instance fraud normally scale through where the staff are they fail to acquit themselves with the existing guidance which would have prevent them against any attempted fraud.

  1. i) Frequent occurrence of fraud ultimate the attention of the management and lead to increase in the running cost, time and energy that prevent fraud. Funds that would also have gone into service improvement activities would be spent in place of fraud control procedures and system.
  2. ii) The effect of fraud in the banking industry is of great importance, most distress bank has been located on enough to absorb the untimely stock. They therefore, find it difficult to meet the demand of their customers.

iii) Subsequent demand without the ability to meet up later exposed the bank and bring about mass with drawal due to lack of confidence in the banking sector.

  1. iv) Customers lack of confidence in bank for not getting their money when needed they therefore preferred to contribute to a cooperative society and investing in securities such as shares debentures and bank in some cases staff are arrested for an attempt to commit fraud (either successful or not) it is worthy of notice that the innocent do suffer for interrogation. The security officers punish them unnecessarily in an attempt to get the nook of the occurrence

 

1.3       Research Question

      Hypothesis is an idea or suggestion that is put for words in other to start reasoning based to tentative identification of the problem stated

This study will provides answer to the following research question

  • Do fraudulent activities exist in banks
  • What are the causes of fraud in banks
  • What effect did fraudulent activities have on banking industry and economy as a whole

 

1.4       Hypothesis of The Study

Hypothesis is used in finding solution to the problem the hypothesis established in this study goes thus

  1. Ho: – There is no significant relationship between control and fraud in the banking industry.
  2. Hi:- There is significant relationship between control  and fraud in the banking industry

 

1.5       Objective of The Study

There is need to eradicate fraud or reducing it to the bearest minimum. These can be done by analyzing. The causes effect and eventually providing the solution to them

The purpose of the study can be summarized as follows:

  • Training of staffs
  • Keeping of adequate proper records in order as not to create room for manipulation of accounting entries or figures
  • Advising employers to remunerate their staff in line with dictation of economy
  • Staff earn within the range of what their contemporary earn in the same industry.

 

1.6       The Scope of The Study

The scope of these studies was focused on the banking industry in Nigeria economy but the case study was in united bank for African (U.B.A)

Also it is seen as being able to prevent the occurrence of fraud in the banking industry.

 

1.7       Limitation of The Study

            Fraud does not only exist in the banking industry alone but also exist in the manufacturing companies heath and in all other  sectors.

Does to time constraint through analysis of a complete phenomenon it has been decided to limits the  research project to the banking industries.

 

1.8       The Significant of The Study

This research study is of immense important  to the back management who have seen the issue of frauds as an insurmountable problem environment may be took into consideration the highlighted causes and solution in policy formation and implementation might consequently have a positive effect on the economy

 

1.9       Definition of Terms

For the purpose of meaningful and accurate study relevant hypothesis have developed

  • Bank:- These are formal financial institution established for the purpose of creating deposit in an economy
  • Fraud: – These are the strategies by which the right or interest of another injured. It is also the act of doing things in a way that is net honest
  • Fraudster:- This is the person or a staff of the bank customer or any member of the pubic who fully initiate a fraud or in collision with other person with purpose of deriving benefit to the detriment of bank
  • Customer:- A customer is a person whose money or other valuable les been accepted by the bank on promise i.e the bank under taken to honor either instrument up to amount standing to his credit irrespective of whether the transaction is at short or long duration
  • Forgery:- This is making a fraudulent copy of cheque draft i.e (forged cheque  with signature)
  • Detection:- Those are the ways in which intentional  mistakes or forgery that has been committed are know

Lending: – This an act of giving something to another person to use for a period of a time on an agreement that it will be returned later.

APPRAISAL OF THE ECONOMIC IMPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK)

CHAPTER ONE

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Before the emergence of modern banking system, banking operation was manually done which lead to a slow down in settlement of transactions. This manual system involves posting transactions from one ledger to another which human handles. Figures or counting of money which should be done through computers or electronic machine were computed and counted manually which were not 100% accurate thereby resulting to human errors. Most bank then use only one computer in carrying out transactions which ameliorate the sluggish nature of banking transaction.

Nigeria do not embrace electronic banking early compared to developed countries. Nigeria adopted electronic banking system in the early 2000s.  During the introduction of electronic banking system, the use of raw cash was said to have bred corruption through the “cash and carry syndrome” usually linked with the swift movement of Ghana-must go” bags by some politicians. Such bags as some analyst say, are a major source of corrupt practices as dubious persons seeks to bribe their way to avoid been checked in some sensitive areas or places in a corrupt society.           Since electronic banking started in all Nigeria banks, it has been a woe for civil servants; checks show that some staff in establishments such as the national boundary commission for instance, are yet to receive their salaries for the previous months as efforts to electrically transfer salaries into their account have failed according to Ibrahim, D. (2009).

“One bank will tell you it has transferred your salaries but the supposed recipient bank will tell you it has not received anything leaving you even more confused”, says John, I. (2009). Olekah, J. (2009) while acknowledging the initial hiccups that dogged the system, advises stakeholders against being discouraged as such “teething problems” are normal.

James, A. (2009) a banker reported to vanguard annual report that “we should not destroy electronic-banking by looking at the negative aspects, we must strive towards perfecting it”. James, A. (2009) also says that the volume of data generated by the Government ministry Agencies is much making it a bit difficult for banks to cope, Mathew S. (2009) a worker says in his report to vanguard annual report on banks and cards that government should have done its home work “very well” before introducing the system, “they plugged us into a system they were not prepared for and the result is untold hardship visited on innocent people”.

At this juncture, is good to know what e-banking is all about.

According to Anyawaokoro, M. (1999). Electronic banking is defined as the application of computer technology to banking especially the payment (deposit transfer) aspects of banking. He also defined electronic banking as a system of banking with an electronic communication network which permits on-line processing of the same day credit and debit transfers of funds between member institutions of a clearing system.

According to Clive, W. (2007) in his Academic dictionary of banking, electronic banking is defined as a form of banking in which funds are transferred through an exchange of electronic signals between financial institutions, rather than an exchange of cash, cheques or other negotiable instruments.

According to Omotayo, G. (2007) defines electronic banking as a system in which funds are moved between different accounts using computerized on line/real time systems without the use of written cheques.

According to Edit, O. (2008) in international Journal of investment and finance, electronic banking is defined as a system by which transactions are settled electronically with the use of electronic gadgets such as ATMs, POS terminals, GSM phones, and V-cards e.t.c. handled by e-holders, bank customers, and stake holders.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

            As earlier pointed out, there is delay in payment of cheques which lead to the adoption of electronic banking system. Adoption of electronic banking which suppose to ease banking transactions rather resulted to woes to customer. Most people complain of time wasted in banks. This occurs when there is power failure in banks resulting to slow down in operation.

Another problem that emerged was that banks do not have information backup to fall back on should there be any computer break down.

In investing in electronic banking, the country will need a large amount of financial resources in computer technology, obviously, the resource is in short supply in Nigeria, couple with high level of poverty. For an efficient functioning of electronic payment system, there must be availability of infrastructural facilities such as electricity and telecommunication network, however, power supply fluctuates and there is still constant failure links in networks.

Since early 2000s banks have been developing and introducing payment cards for their customers as well as deploy ATM’s cards. Usage was however low due to lack of interconnectivity i.e. switching platform to interconnect the ATM’s for card holders.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 

This research work intends to assess the extent of electronic payment in banking activities as well as identify the various types of electronic banking.

The researcher will also evaluate the major problems associated with the development of electronic banking system in Nigeria as well as evaluate possible solutions to these problems.

The effect of electronic banking on profitability of banks will also be assessed. There are different types of electronic banking used in Nigeria banks; the researcher will like to evaluate the impact of these e-payment systems on banking industry and also assess the impact of electronic banking in Nigeria economy.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTION

In order to get information from respondents the following questions where formulated:

What are the various types of electronic payment and the extent of electronic payment in banking activities?

In what extent can e-banking improve or enhance banking services?

What are the major problems associated with the development of electronic banking system in Nigerian?

What are the solutions to the problems associated with the development of e-banking?

What extent has e-payment affected banking activities?

The research shall attempt to find answers to these questions in the next chapter.

 

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Electronic banking in our economy today is a welcome development and also its impacts in the society are over-whelming, so this research is significant in so many ways.

It will expose the strength and weakness of electronic banking.

It will motivate banks and other economic agents to computerize their services.

Knowledge in the area of electronic banking will be advanced.

Apart from contributing to the knowledge of electronic banking, it forms a reference for future research in this area.

1.6       SCOPE OF STUDY

This research is on economic implication of electronic banking in Nigeria banks and also the various forms of payment and electronic systems used by banks. The researcher will base this work on the entire deposit money banks in Nigeria but to Diamond Bank in particular.

 

1.7       LIMITATION OF STUDY

Time is a major factor to the researcher as research of this kind requires enough time in gathering of data, but it was not given to carryout the research, distribution, collection and analysis of questionnaire.

Also the school system has made it difficult for student to go out in search for information by not granting exeat for student. Some banks hud information from students who desires such information in other to maintain the banks secrecy thereby making it difficult for students to gather information for their research.

Finally, finance was infact the most limited factor, in spite of this the researcher have to travel out to the sampled organization to interview some of the managers and supervisors.

THE IMPACT OF MARKETING STRATEGIES ON BANKS PROFITABILITY IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF WEMA BANK OF NIGERIA, PLC)

ABSTRACT

This research work aimed at studying the impact of marketing strategies on banks profitability. Wema Bank of Nigeria, Osogbo was taken as the case study. The effectiveness of marketing strategies can be ascertained through advertising personal selling sales promotion and public relation. Purpose of the study: This project is to create an absolute solution to the problem which may emanate as a result of inadequate marketing strategy adopted in banking system and to tap necessary information about the potential customers in order to accomplish the objectives of the organization. Research Methodology: – Oral interview which is one of the techniques of primary source and questionnaires were used to gather relevant and essential data which led to the compilation and completion of this thesis work. Major Findings: – It was discovered that Wema Bank of Nigeria has built a good customer relationship. Thus, the customers of the bank have been highly increasing due to the aggressive marketing strategies. Also, introduction of computer to the bank has helped the bank to cope with the increasing volume of transaction. Recommendations and implications of the study: – After the assessment of all the data gathered, it was recommended that the personnel dealing with marking of bank’s products should have formal training in marketing as a course starting from customer relation officer of the bank to the branch manager. It was also recommended that bank should substitute modern technology for obsolete and manual operations that will make to be more efficient, productive and also reduce risk of fraud.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vi – vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1
    • Background of the Study 1
    • Statement of the Problem 2
    • Research Hypothesis 2
    • Purpose of the Study 2
    • Scope of the Study 2
    • Limitation of the Study 2
    • Significance of the Study 2
    • Definition of Terms 3

 

CHAPTER TWO

  • Literature Review 4
    • The Banking Profitability 4
    • Meaning of Marketing 4
    • Marketing Strategies 5
    • The Function of Marketing in Wema Bank 9
    • Major Marketing Strategies Adopted by Wema Bank 10
    • Impact of Marketing Strategies 12

 

CHAPTER THREE

  • Research Methodology 14
    • Research Design 14
    • Area of Study                                                 14
    • Population of the Study 14
    • Sample and sampling Procedure 14
    • Instrument for data Collection 14
    • Method of data Collection 15
    • Method of data Analysis 15

 

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 16
    • Introduction 16
    • Marketing Department of Wema Bank of Nigeria, Osogbo Branch 16
    • Analysis of Questionnaire 16
    • Testing of Hypothesis 18

 

CHAPTER FIVE

  • Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 21
    • Summary 21
    • Conclusion 21
    • Recommendation 22

Reference                                                                                                        24

Questionnaire                                                                                                  26


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The impact of marketing strategies on the banks profitability in ensure the profitability of banking industries in Nigeria can not be over emphasized.

This research work vividly not only to acknowledge the development of marketing strategies in accomplishment of corporate objectives but also analyses and review some literature works to clearly elevate the impact and role of marketing strategies on banking profitability. Since one of those way using in mobilization of resources from surplus units and directing to the deficit units.

Banking serves as a medium of transmission of government monetary policy with a view of achieving more economic objectives, other important roles include; facilitation of cash flows, eradicate allocation, allocation of resources of utilize the plan and maintenance of financial discipline.

Beyond the reasonable doubt, banking profitability has been subjected to many developments in recent years; since change is the only element that constant in life.

Therefore, banking profit has been exposed to many changes which have immensely contributed to growth of the nation economy.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Marketing strategies is very important in ensuring the profitability of banking system. Since problem will emanate as a result of lack or inadequacy in section of strategies, such problem may encounter are lack of adequate information to take valuable decision for effective planning.

Also, there will be a problem of inefficient and ineffectiveness in accomplishment organization objective. This will also result to low level of profit maximization.

Aforementioned problem are those which may probably encountering in any banking industries in which there is lack of effective marketing strategy adopted.

 

1.3       Research Hypothesis

The hypothesis to be used are the Null (Ho) and Alternative (H1). Hypothesis.

  1. H1: – There is significant relationship between marketing strategies and banking profitability.

Ho: – There is no significant relationship between marketing strategies and banking profitability.

  1. H1: – There is significant relationship between marketing strategies and service improvement.

Ho: – There is no significant relationship between marketing strategies and service improvement.

  1. H1: – There is clear difference between banks profitability and marketing strategies.

Ho: – There is no clear difference between banks profitability and marketing strategies.

  1. H1: – Sale promotion techniques are managed in the customer buying behaviour.

Ho: – Sales promotion techniques are not effectively managed in the customer buying behaviour.

  1. H1: – Target market has significant impact on the effectiveness of sale promotion in a customer buying profitability.

Ho: – Target market does not have any significant impact on the effectiveness on the sales promotion.

 

1.4       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research work is to create an absolute solution to the problem which may emanate as a result of inadequate marketing strategies adopted in banking system.

  • To bring about the effective and efficiency in banking profitability
  • To solve the problem this may be caused by ineffective marketing communication

To tap necessary information about the actual and potential customers all in order to accomplish the objective of organization.

1.5       Scope of the Study

  • The study researched into the marketing strategies and their impact on banking profitability as well as their impact on the customer’s profitability. Also the study considered the marketing strategy which gives detail explanation in the area of: advertising, publicity, sales promotion, personal selling and public relation.

 

1.6       The Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this research, the researchers faced a lot of problem among which are: Financial Constraints, Shortage of Time and Consultation, due to these problem, the study is limited to Wema bank of Nigeria Osogbo Branch.

 

1.7       Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to provide benefits for different set of people and organization as a whole especially for intending Nigeria industrialists who might want to invest on banking services.

Also, this research work will be of great benefit for my co-students especially in the school of financial studies for further research work.

This research work will significantly observe mainly for this research work in (Wema Bank of Nigeria, Osogbo).

 

1.8       Definition of Terms

  1. Marketing Strategy: This is a technique which is used to develop the demand for the product which the company is producing or services they are rendering to the public.
  2. Monetary Policy: This is financial techniques which Central Bank of Nigeria uses as an instrument of controlling the financial situation of the nation.
  3. Banking Services: These are the services that banks are rendering to the general public some of which are:

Custodian of customers’ deposit and other valuable materials financial advisory and so on.

  1. Advertising: This is a method of giving incentive of the customer through discount and other means as a result of cash or prompt payment and the integrity of the customer.

Sales Promotion: This is a method of giving incentives to the customer through discount and other means as a result of cash or prompt payment and the integrity of the customers.

THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ON BANK’S PROFITABILITY AND SERVICE DELIVERY IN NIGERIA (A Case Study of United Bank of Africa UBA)

ABSTRACT

The introduction of Information Technology in the Nigerian baking industry in a direct development of the intense competition that have engulfed the system. This study is on the impact of information technology on banks profitability and service delivery in Nigeria, the United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc, has been use as a case study. The study also examined the historical evolution of information technology and its application in different aspects of business organization and human Endeavour. The study also assessed banking operation in UBA before and after the introduction of the Information Technology in Nigeria banks. The percentage test was used to analysis the data collected come with the fact that technology has also the job of the management and staff of the bank easier. The study goes further to recommend ways of making more effective use of computer in baking industry. The introduction of technology in the Nigerian banking system is a direct development of the intense competition that have engulfed the system. The study concluded that deregulation of the economy and the licensing of more banks has been responsible for the keen competition in the banking industry.

 


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                   …                    …                    …                    …        i

Certification              …                    …                    …                    …        ii

Dedication                 …                    …                    …                    …        iii

Acknowledgement   …                    …                    …                    …        iv

Abstract                     …                    …                    …                    …        v

Table of Contents     …                    …                    …                    …        vi-vii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study                                                                 1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                3

1.3       Aims and Objectives of the Study                                                 4

1.4       Statement of research hypothesis                                                  4

1.5       Significant of the study                                                                   5

1.6       Limitation of the Study                                                                   6

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                           6

1.8       Definition of terms                                                                                      6-7

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Introduction the chapter                                                                 8

2.2       The concept Technology and its mode of application               8

2.3       Means            of Information Technology (IT)                                        8

2.4       Stage and evaluation of banking technology                               9

2.5       Information Technology in banking industry                              11

2.6       Secured banking on the internet information                              12

2.7       The concept of E-banking and bank’s operation                                    13

2.8       Initial difficulties of computer in Nigeria banking system        13

2.9       Suggested solution to the problem of computerization                         14

2.10    Information technology and bank’s

service delivery and profitability                                                  15

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction to the chapter                                                            16

3.2       Restatement of research hypothesis                                             16

3.3       Research design                                                                               16

3.4       Sample size and Sampling procedure/techniques                                   17

3.5       Data collection instruments                                                                       17

3.6       Testing of validity and reliability of

Data collection instruments                                                                       17

3.7       Limitation of data collection                                                          18

3.8       Procedures of data analysis                                                                        18

 

CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA

4.1       Discussion of the study Area (UBA PLC)                                                19

4.2       Presentation and analysis of data based on hypothesis                                     20

4.3       Presentation and analysis of data based on research question                         20

4.4       Impact of information technology (IT) based on banking system.       30

4.5       Analysis and observations                                                                         31

4.6       Interpretation of findings                                                                            31

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary                                                                                                       33

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                       33

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                    34

References                                                                                                    36

Appendix 1                                                                                                   37

Appendix 2                                                                                                   38-39

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUNG OF THE STUDY

The Nigerian banking system has experienced significant changes in recent times particularly since the mid 1980’s. This change can be traced back to the Babangida Administration which introduce the structural Adjustment programmed (SAP) as a means of receiving the economy but rather change both the structure and the content of banking business. The period from 1985 to 1991 remarkable increases in the number of bank from fourth (40) in 1985 to one hundred and twenty five (125) in 1991. Changes were also evident in the techniques of delivering banking service and other range of products and service and other range of products and services offered in the market.

Infact some economist and banking analyst have describe as a revolution. They have used the word revolution to describe these profound changes because of the rapid and fundamental changes that they occurred in banking system in a short period others have seen the changes as another banking boom being comparable to happen in the banking system in the fifties.

When ones look at the recent development, what is clear is that structural adjustment programmes (SAP) bought about changes in the ways banks operates, includes the final liberation which Sap bought to Nigeria Banking system.

The old banks have been challenged by the new crop of banks that have introduced more sophisticated method service delivery in a bid to improve their competitive position on the market. This result has been a position external throughout banking system both old and new banks have been forced to introduce new traditional functions.

The introduction of technology in the Nigeria Banking system is a direct development of the intense competition that have engulfed the system.

There are other factors that have contributed to the rapid introduction of technology in major part of banking system

These factors are:

  1. Customer sophisticated needs
  2. The enormous volume and complicity of operation
  3. Financial liberation
  4. Increased innovation and variety of products services delivery
  5. Globalization
  6. Business process i.e. engineering and important of all

Technology thus become the main driver of the banking since the last decades, Nigeria banks have no option but to embrace the new information technology if they are to remain efficient and competitive globally.

The role of banks and others financial institution in economy is that of financial intermediation, banking occupies that central position in the financial system. The roles of financial intermediation means that financial institution particularly banks mobilize resources towards the deficits units. They also help in the allocation of financial recourse to the various sectors in the economy

Banks perform certain basic functions within the economy. They solicit for and accept deposit the primary responsibility towards deposits in this regard is that of providing save custody for such money and ensuring that the depositor have access to such money when the need arises. Credit creation is the most important source of income for banks for performing their function, they are expected to ensure product management of assets and guarantee the safety of fraud forgeries and other financial malpractices to ensure stability and sequence public confident in the system one way that the banks can enhance. These services are the application of the technology.

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The problem faced by banks in these are of information technology is due to incompetence of staff and lack of proper training which make the use of computer difficult in some banks. This has led to low service delivery to their customer which as result has make their customers to decrease in number.

The violation of the computer industry, which makes equipment easily obsolete the computer technology keeps on changing from time to time and the cost involved are to exorbitant for many of Nigeria banks. As an electronic device is easily can be used to manipulate figures, transfer of money without handing it (i.e the money), creating of ghost worker whereby the payroll is computerized. These fraud acts is easy on computer will only accept what it press on it.

The year 1980’s  was another period when the usefulness of computer was highly appreciated, it was structural adjustment programme era(Deregulated economy) where there was no room for arm coir banking. All bank to compete with each other in terms of offering best services so that they would have more customers and more profit to be assured. SAP era witnessed the sprinkling of many banks in Nigeria.

One can see from above that the growth and development of economy rest much on banking industry since that is where fund can be sourced for investment purpose, hence much attention need to be given to its efficient performance

Despite the usefulness of computer, it still have some deficiency which has make it easy for people to perpetrate fraud on it compute

 

 

1.3       AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

This study is hoped to provide a searchlight as to the extent of use of information technology in the banking sector it would examine the evolving relationship between technology and banking development with a view of highlighting the possible future trends that will occur in the banking industry

The objectives of the study are listed below:

  1. To critically examine the factor that bought about information technology in the banking operation
  2. To determine the level of computerization banking toward increasing efficiency of services in Nigeria.
  3. To examine Bank’s profitability and service delivery in Nigeria Banking operation
  4. To suggest and investigate how growth and development in the economy through banking operation could be achieved.

1.4       STATEMENT OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

To guide this study, the following hypothesis will be taken into consideration and look into

HYPOTHESIS I

  1. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS(Hi): Introduction of computer in banking industry in Nigeria brings efficiency in the service delivery of banks

NULL HYPOTHESIS (Ho): Introduction of computer in banking industry in Nigeria does not bring efficiency in service delivery of banks

HYPOTHESIS II

 

  1. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS (Hi): Introduction of information technology in banking operation in Nigeria decrease cost of doing business and increase profitability.

NULL HYPOTHESIS (Ho): Introduction of information technology in banking operation in Nigeria does not reduce the rate of paper work and thereby reduce profitability

1.5       JUSTIFICATION/SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The impact of information technology on banks profitability and service delivery in Nigeria banking system is a topic for academics despite banking system is a topic for academics despite the fact that the following sector and people will benefits from the above mentioned topic

Firstly, the bank will benefit from the findings and recommendation to be give in these ways

If banks should apply the information technology in their service, this will increase their customers thereby increase productivity and this will help in making more profit thereby achieving the banks aims and objectives

Both business banks and government emphasize strategic planning, Balance control central and rapid response to the development problems. The result is a constant demand for better and timelier information.

Every banking industry has its own manner in which they are handled depend on the volume of works to be done; the degree of accuracy required the necessary speed and the cost. Regard less of its other requirement however, every bank industry must keep the accounts of its customers, that is savings accounts and current Accounts, printing statements of the interest and the update balance

 

 

1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

A study of this nature its peculiar limitations, among such limitations were access to recorded and book. Though this study enjoyed maximum co-operation of some UBA constraints as some data like information technology costs are considered secrets which can-not be disclosed.

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This is study information of five chapter one serve as introducing, chapter two gives the review of related literature, chapter three give the research literature, chapter three give the research methodology while chapter four contain analysis of Data and chapter five deals with summary, conclusion and recommendation.

This study is primary concerned with the efficient introduction of information technology on banks profitability and service delivery into commercial banking operation in Nigeria that utilization of computer were extensively investigated and reported.

Books journals, articles, other publication from related protect were consulted and used in preparation for this study.

Also personal interview and the writers experience being an information technology literatures proved valuable.

1.8       DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS

Definition of key terms are as follows:

THE IMPACT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) ON CORPORATE PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK , OSOGBO , OSUN STATE)

ABSTRACT   

Several years of military misrule and mismanagement had weakened the economic management processes and institutions in Nigeria. There was no transparency and accountability in government (Public Sector) and private sectors and Nigeria became notorious for endemic corruption. The result was the inability of government to deliver corruption. Most private companies both in the oil and non-oil sector have constantly evade taxes and have collide with officials to evade custom duties and payment of taxes. In addition, widespread perpetration of economic and financial crime banking fraud and fraud (419), money laundering, cyber crime, banking fraud and endemic corruption have had severe negative consequences on Nigeria. Consequently, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) was established as one of the mechanisms for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of corrupt practices and economic and financial crimes in the public and the private sector. Finally, this research work is aimed at looking into the various contributions of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) in promoting financial accountability and transparency. To achieve this aim five research questions were developed. The study adopted the survey research approach using the three study areas. The EFCC Lagos, EFCC Enugu ad PHCN formed the population of the study. A sample size of 55 was choosing using Taro Yamane’s model while simple random techniques were used to select the sample. Data retrieved from 55 completed questionnaires were subsequently  presented in tables while simple percentage were used to analyze and answer the research questions formulated to guide the research work. After the analysis of data, the hypothesis tested reviewed that the contributions of EFCC has effectively promoted financial accountability and transparency in Nigeria. Therefore, the researcher recommends the following: developing an intensified information technology, staff training, capacity building and health care fraud control.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

     PAGE

Title                                                                                                                             i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi – vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               2

1.3       Research Objectives                                                                                        2

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         3

1.5       Research Hypothesis                                                                                       3

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               4

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                         5

1.8       Limitations of the Study                                                                                 5

1.9       Historical Background of the study                                                             5-6

1.10     Organizational charts                                                                                      7

1.11    Definition of Terms                                                                         8-9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           10

2.1       The Development of the production plan                                                      10

2.2       production control system and documentation                                              10-13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                   14

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             14

3.3       Population and Sample Size                                                                           15

 

vi

 

 

 

3.4       Research Instrument for Data Collection                                                       15

3.5       Method of Data Collection                                                                                         15

3.6       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               15-16

CHAPTER FOUR  

4.0       Data Analysis and Interpretation                                                                    17-18

4.1       Data Presentation                                                                                            19

  • Analysis of Questionnaire 20

4.3       Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                     20-24

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations and Suggestion

for Further Study                                                                                            25

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         25

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      25

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          26

Appendix I                                                                                                      27

Appendix II (Questionnaire)                                                                                     27

 

Bibliography

 

THE IMPACT OF CREDIT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES ON CREDIT ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA BANKS (A CASE STUDY OF WEMA BANK PLC)

ABSTRACT

The research work is to show how the impact of credit policies and procedure on credit administration in Nigeria banking sector. The project topic is to enlighten on how credit is administered in banking sector. The instrument used in this project work is secondary and primary data. Information is gotten from various sources which are oral interview, questionnaire administration and field observation. The opinions of acknowledgment person in the issue under consideration. The nature of the issue under highly experienced in financial analysis questionnaires also distributed. In conducting the interview, asset of questions were draw in the subject matter and these were asked from the respondents like wise administrated questionnaires were asked collected by hand to avoid delay. While the secondary data is gotten from Lagos State exchange library, central bank of Nigeria library. Annual reports and accounts of Nigeria breweries plc, published journals and Articles in pricing from seminar and workshops in pricing in the secondary market. The objective of this study is to examine the formulation of appropriate lending policies and the establishment of operating procedure and manual to ensure the smooth flow of work surely every bank evolves a credit policy, which is based upon its own banking ideology or strategy. This is therefore useful to students who intend to have the same knowledge in order to improve upon the impact of credit policies and procedures on credit administration in Nigeria banking sector.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         I

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     II

DEDICATION                                                                                                           III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                         IV

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               V

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                             VI

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY                                                                         1 – 2

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM                                                             2

1.3       JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY                                                             2 – 3

1.4       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY                                                                     3

1.5       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS                                                                4

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY                                                                              4

1.7       ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY                                                          4

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       INTRODUCTION                                                                                         5

2.2       REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE                                                    5

2.3       MEANING OF CREDIT                                                                               6

2.4       TYPES OF CREDITS                                                                                    6 – 12

2.5       CREDIT PROCEDURE                                                                                12 – 15

2.6       CREDIT ADMINISTRATION                                                                     15 – 17

2.7       PRUDENTIAL GUIDELINES AND CREDIT ADMINISTRATION      17

2.8       ADVANTAGES OF CREDIT TO BANK                                                   17 – 18

2.9       PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH BANK CREDIT                                18 – 19

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • SOURCE OF DATA 20
  • RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESIS 20
  • RESEARCH DESIGN 21
  • STUDY POPULATION 21
  • SAMPLE DESIGN AND PROCEDURE 21
  • DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS                                                 22
  • ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENT 22
  • PROCEDURE FOR DATA ANALYSIS                                                                22

 

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

  • PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA USING

RESEARCH QUESTION                                                                             23 – 26

  • PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 26

ACCORDING TO HYPOTHESIS                                                               26 – 27

  • FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 28

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION   

  • SUMMARY 29
  • CONCLUSION 29 – 30
  • RECOMMENDATIONS 30 – 31
  • SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES 31

REFERENCES                                                                                              32

APPENDIX                                                                                                    33 – 34

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Wema Bank Plc formerly known as Agbonmagbe bank limited was incorporated on the end of May, 1945 as a Private Limited Liability Commercial Banking Company with an authorized share capital of £15,000 fully paid, jointly owned by Chief M. A. Okupe and Mr. A. A. Alade.

The bank was incorporated with the following stated objectives:

  1. The provision of efficient and modern banking service to Nigeria businessmen, trader and craftsmen of a reasonable for ice.
  2. Identification of the bank with the economic and industrial aspiration of the country.
  3. The assurance that the bank enough funds for expansion and modernization are readily available when needed.
  4. The creation of better condition of service for its employees to ensure maximum job satisfaction consistent with the overall objectives.

Like many other indigenous banks operation in the country then, the bank had during its early days gone through trying period owning largely to low level of capitalization, staff competition from other bank with foreign ownership, etc

In order to enable the bank minimize the effect of the factors listed above and substantially increase its scale of operation, its authorized share capital was increased to £25,000 (twenty five thousand pounds). In the first few years of operations, however, only £13,535 was taken up by the shareholders of the bank.

The Western Nigeria Government rose up to assistance of the bank through its agency Western Nigeria Marketing Board by making a deposition of £100,000 was capitalized, this making the board the majority shareholders of the bank.

This bank continued its operation with this level of capitalization until 1968 when a new banking decree was promulgated by the Federal Ministry Government. The degree which raised the minimum share capital of indigenous commercial bank to £300,000 resulted in a marked difference in the ownership and control structure of the bank.

Owing to the inability of minority shareholders to meet up with the demand for proportional increase due from them and in order to protect the interest of the government and the people. It became imperative for government to bear the entire burden of the increase in share capital requirements. This singular act of government helped in forestalling the closing down of a potentially viable indigenous bank.

To reflect therefore, the true ownership of the bank and restore the much needed public confidence necessary for continued customer patronage, the name Agbonmagbe Bank Limited was changed to Wema Bank Limited on the 1st of June, 1970. Also, the share capital of the share capital of the bank was increased from £93,000 to £500,000 during that year and #4 million later with #2.8 million duly paid up in 1981.

With the creation of Oyo, Ogun and Ondo States in 1975 out of erstwhile Western State, Odu’a Investment Company Limited was formed by the government of these states to overse their investment interest in all companies jointly owned by them of which  Wema Bank is one.

The history of Wema Bank cannot be complete without due recognition of the past and present Managing Director, who in their various ways contributed to the development of the bank.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 

Credit policy and procedure should control all factors of banks operations including liquidity, assets structure, gearing cost, income expectation etc, it should also cover the assessment of lending proposals, authorization credit information and records, loan volume, credit spread cost of bank funds, credit review, prevention of loan delinquency and collateral security arrangement. All these are to improve and monitor the credit facilities and granting of banks in order to safeguard the bank interest and help reduce uncertainty.

Lack of proper credit policy and procedure result into:

  1. Insufficient underwriting and lack of prior background checks an investigation of potential borrowers.
  2. Inadequate analysis of the real purpose and use of the loan proceeds and the source of payment
  3. Lack of understanding of the borrowers’ true financial needs and how the funds will benefit them. In this connection the banker should fully comprehend the financial structure of borrowing entity in order to better understand the company’s financial condition and financing requirement. Also, banks have treated long term problem with short term solution by extending quick fix loans to many borrowers.
  4. Inadequate analysis of financial statements, perhaps because of apprehension about asking borrowers or their accountants pertinent questions
  5. Poor review and audit of marginal loans
  6. Overly aggressive loan for growth. This behavior allows officers to become more tax in lending criteria, thus, ineffective, letting the competition set their lending standards as they seek to remain competitive
  7. Poor defined, excessively lenient or poorly implemented and monitored credit policies and procedures.
  8. Inexperienced loan offices who in correctly approved loans because they do not have necessary expertise to evaluate and analyze credit and financial information or because they may not have sought the proper counsel or making such loans, including neglect to properly evaluate, document and collateralize loans
  9. Easily persuaded loan officers who allow customers to intimidate coerce or overtly sell them on making loans
  10. Over reliance on the analysis of a lead bank regarding credit decisions invoking participation (e.g. syndicate loan)

 

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Many bankers cannot unequivocally declare that they have been untouched by problems of loans. Certainly, it is a way of life in these tumultuous times of banking that virtually all of us are faced with problems so –called worked loans.

The principal reasons banks have exposed themselves more to problem loan is a result of procedural break down within their own system.

The objective of this study is to examine the formulation of appropriate lending policies and the establishment of operating procedures and manuals to ensure the smooth flow of work surely every bank evolves a credit policy, which is based upon its own banking ideology or strategy. Wema Bank Nigerian Plc is chosen to know how they balance the quantity of the loan portfolio to achieve earning objectives and also meet appropriate credit needs.

 

1.4       STATEMENT OF THE HYPOTHESIS

Ho:      The proper credit polices guideline has nothing to do with effective performance of banks operation Nigeria.

Hi:       The proper credit policies guideline enhanced effective performance of banking operation

 

Ho:      The return and profitability on credit granted to customer did not influenced by credit policies and procedure the banks authorized to maintain.

Hi:       The return and profitability on credit granted to customer procedure the bank authorized to maintain.

 

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The impact of credit policies and procedures on credit administration in Nigeria banks has a vital function in banking operation has direct effect on economic growth and business development. Three must be careful study and proper analysis of credit policies and procedures has become imperative to bankers and those sincere to the function of granting credit. This is because, bank as a custodian of customers fund should endeavor to thoroughly perfect its granting of credit to safeguard the customers fund and perpetually remain in business.

This following problem and the questionnaire are being design by research work will intends to provide an answer to it.

  • How to evaluate and appraise credit policies procedure and administration
  • How to balance the goals between the banks and customer for efficient returns on loans granted to them
  • How to embank upon can on of lending to default in repayment of loan

 

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The project is divided into five chapter one in the introduction aspect of the (credit policies and procedure) the chapter consist of historical background of Wema Bank Plc, statement of the problem, justification and objective of the study, statement of hypothesis, scope and the organization of the study and probably limitation of the study.

The chapter two, deals with the review of the post literature that in the post write – up on credit policies and on credit administration in Nigeria.

Chapter three consist of research methodology, deal on methods used in collecting data, source of data and research instrument, presentation and data analysis

Chapter four deals with data analysis and presentation and also the general discussion on research finding

Chapter five, this made up of summary, conclusion and recommendation.

THE CONFLICT MANAGEMENT AND PRODUCTIVITY IN BANKING INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF EQUITORIAL TRUST BANK LIMITED)

Abstract

This research work is intended to find out conflict management and productivity in banking industry, a case study of Equitorial Trust Bank Plc. The response inferred from the questionnaire administered will be used to determining the sources and consequences of conflict on to the operators of the bank. The outcome of finding is to show the conflicts is inevitable and that be the bank task of management is to manage the level of conflict and its resolution for optimal organization performance. It looks into certain literatures, with collection and interpretations of data and thereafter summarized findings and necessary recommendation provided.          


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii
Dedication                                                                                                                  iii
Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv
Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi – vii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of Problem                                                                                                 1

1.3       Objective of the Study                                                                                   2

1.4       Research Question                                                                                          2

1.5       Statement of Hypothesis                                                                                2

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               2 – 3

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                         3

1.8       Limitation of the Study                                                                                  3

1.9       Historical Background of the Case Study                                                      4 – 5

1.10     Definition of Terms                                                                                        5 – 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                    7 – 8

2.2       Theoretical framework                                                                                    8 – 12

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                    13

3.2       Research Design                                                                                             14

3.3       The Study Population                                                                                                 14

3.4       Sampling Method and Sample Size                                                                14

3.5       Source of Data                                                                                                15

3.6       Data Collection Instrument                                                                            15 – 16

3.7       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               16

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.1       Data presentation and Analysis of Responses                                                17 – 20

4.2       Discussion of Findings                                                                                   21 – 24

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary of the Study                                                                                    25 – 26

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      26 – 27

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          27 – 28

Bibliography                                                                                                   29

Appendix                                                                                                        30 – 34

 

 


CHAPTER ONE


1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Equatorial Trust Bank limited today is one of the leading private new generation banks in Nigeria. Established in March. 1990, the Bank’s main areas of activity are in Retail Banking, Corporate banking, International and investment banking. It has twenty six (26) branches in the nerve center of Nigeria economy, which are all linked to the Head office by the state-of-art ‘Real-time, on-line technology. This is enabling ETB to provide fast, efficient and dependable bank -vices to ten of thousand of satisfied customer. ETB has staff strength of about Two thousand five hundred (2500) workers.

Since incepti9n, the bank has been a trendselter in many sphere of modern banking in Nigeria. The bank has an asset size of 297 billion and profit after tax of 2.060 billion (figure as at June 30,2002) this remarkable achievement is due to the fact that the bank focuses it attention at all time on the needs of it custon.ier. All the products and packaged to suit the fast eve-changing environment and need of our dynamic customers throughout the federal Republic of Nigeria
1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Some organizations have collapsed due to one industrial conflict or another. The extreme conflict may bring organization activity to a halt and has the potential of threatening organization survival

Conflict breeds discontentment among member of organization, and it dissolves common ties among groups, department and or sub units.

Conflict hamper co-operative in organization and conflict creates a situation of uncertainty in an organization and serve to lower the morale, satisfaction and above all, the productivity of the organization as a whole.


1.3       OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

This study attempts to identify and trace consequences of power and conflict in an organization. Common sense suggests that these two are important for the smooth operation of any organization and that the lives and behaviour of organizational members are virtually affected by these two variables and they are inevitable in any organization. In view of the consequences of organizational conflict, this study seek to look in details, at the cause, consequence and possible resolution of industrial conflict, with a view to remanding ways of achieving organization harmony in Equitorial Trust Bank Limited and the wider society.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTION

The main purpose of ibis study is to find a realistic solution to organizational conflict.
This study will expose one to how to handle conflict in organizations. This study will try to find possible answers or solution to the following question.

  1. Is conflict necessary in organization?
  2. What are the causes of organizational conflict in Equitorial Trust Bank Limited?
  3. Does conflict mean the attainment of organizational goal and objectives and in what way?
  4. Does conflict affect individual peace and harmony in Equitorial Trust Bank limited?
  5. How can conflict be reduced or resolved in Equatorial Trust Rank Limited?

 

1.5       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

In this study, many divergent views will be aired, investigated and verified. Other that cannot be confirmed immediately will be reconciled through the use of hypothesis formulation as follows;

Ho:      There is no relationship between poor information dissemination and conflict in Equitorial Trust Bank Limited.

Hi:       There is relationship between poor remuneration of employees and conflict in Equitorial Trust Rank Lirnited.

Ho:      If conflict is not managed effectively, it cannot bring organizational activities to a halt and has the potential of threatening, organizational survival in Equitorial Trust Bank limited.

Hi:       If conflict is managed effectively, it may bring organizational activity to a halt and has the potential of threatening organizational survival in .Equitorial Trust Bank Limited.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

The significance of this study is in x-ray alt the areas of the bank that may be prone to

Industrial conflict, with a view to finding ways to minimize and or resolve conflict. This will in effect bring about industrial harmony and the overall attainment of organizational goals and objectives. And with this, the bank will be able to meet its social obligation to the wider society.

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Emphasis will be on both functional and dye functional aspects of conflict in Equitorial Trust Bank limited.


1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

 As human wants are insatiable, so also in any particular endeavor undertaking by a man.
As usual, in any research work, a few problem must be encountered which to some extent many narrow the success of collecting the much needed data for the study, hence affecting the outcome of the findings.

These limitations are

  1. Fear of releasing data among the respondent some of tile respondents refused to release some essential information needed due to confidentially
  2. Considering the distance of the polytechnic to the organization, the academic schedule and the time limit of the research is another limiting factor or a constraint of the research work

Also considering light cost of transportation financial limitation also played it own role.
1.9       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF CASE STUDY

Equitorial Trust Bank (ETB) was incorporated as limited liability Company on January 30, 1990 and granted commercial banking license on February 7, 1990. it commenced business on March 1, 1990, emerged from the merger with Dercom bank effective January 1, 2006 in a dominant position in the Nigeria financial service industry.

The Bank now currently has about 100 branches in commercial nerve centers of Nigeria. The branch spread is concentrated in some key commercial centers such as Lagos (36) Ibadan (8), Abuja and Port Harcourt (5) Benin and Onitsha (4).

The Bank recruitment of new and experienced staff is guided by these clusters of branch expansion Partnership that work?

The Bank for news in Nigeria.
Just as the entire like Nigeria, ETB has taken the bold step to emerge as the Bank for the emerging banks in Nigeria through the provision of customer-oriented products and services.

The Banks. which recently broken a campaign with the same “The Bank for new Nigeria, set to Fully take advantage of the opportunities that abound in the emerging Nigeria and is aimed at entrenching and consolidating its position as not just a Bank that part news customer to success, but the bank that understand, the economic opportunities in Nigeria.

The campaign is a bold statement or the readiness and financial strength of ETB to partner Nigerians is exploiting the various opportunities that abound in the emerging new Nigeria, be it oil, telecommunications, manufacturing, energy, construction, as well as small medium enterprise.

The campaign has brought to the awareness of Nigerians that a bank, you need a partner, and as [partners and believers in Nigeria and her economy, this campaign has showcased the qualities of ETB as a bank that is supporting and partnering people, business and enterprise of different walks of life to succeed. Over the years, ETB has been involved in key areas of Nigeria’s economy oil, telecoms and ETB is by far Nigeria’s biggest economic growth partner.

THE ROLE OF ADVERTISEMENT OF BANK PRODUCTS ON BANK PROFITABILITY {A CASE STUDY OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA UBA}

ABSTRACT

This project aims at focusing on the role of advertising of bank products on bank profitability, it was written primarily using United Bank for Africa as a case study. The project contains five chapters, the introduction of the topic which deals with Background of the study, statement of the problem, Research question, Limitation of the study and historical background of United Bank for Africa. The literature review, where we defined advertising types of advertising and essence of Advertising as a role of advertisement of bank product. The research methodology try to explain how data are collected and process together with the strategic employed in the research, research design, instrument of data collection and method of data collection. The analysis of result was presented using T-test method which discuss the result and the policy issue concerning the project. The write-up recommendation and conclusion deal with bringing out the main point of the project.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certificate                                                                                                                   ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Contents                                                                                                       vi-vii

CHAPTER ONE

  • Introduction 1

1.1      Background of the Study                                                                               1 – 2

1.2      Statement of the Study                                                                                   2

1.3      Research Question                                                                                          2

1.4      Objectives of the Study                                                                                  2

1.5      Significance of the Study                                                                               3

1.6      Limitation of the Study                                                                                  3

1.7      Historical Background of United for Africa {UBA}                                                3

1.8      Definition of the Terms                                                                                  4

CHAPTER TWO                

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           5

2.1       Definition of Advertising                                                                               5

2.2       Objective of Advertising                                                                                6

2.3       Definition of Advertising Media                                                                    6

2.4       Types of Advertising                                                                                      7

2.5       Essence of Advertising as a Role of Advertisement of Bank Product          7 – 8

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                   9

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             9

3.2       Area of the Study                                                                                           9

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                  10

3.4       Sample and Sampling Procedure                                                                    10

3.5       Instrument of Data Collection                                                                        10

3.6       Method of Data Collection                                                                             11

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation.                                             12

4.1       Analysis of Data                                                                                             12 – 15

4.2       Testing for the Hypothesis                                                                              15 – 17

4.3       Summary of Finding.                                                                                      17

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation                                                 18

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         18

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      18

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                            20 – 19

References                                                                                                      20

Questionnaire                                                                                                  21 – 22
CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

            Bank advertising includes advertising performed by banking institutions. Apart from advertising address to bank customers, this category may also include business reports, information brochures of announcements on payment of new shares, reports on investment program results and several other financial announcements {information}.

The first type contains dominant psychological message, while the latter involves factual or logically verifiable messages, in order to impact banks product and service to current and potential customers.

The selection of banking advertising means depend on a bank’s targets group. Most banking institution address their advertising to holders of small account and this advertise their product and service through the mass media. The press and television are the preferred means for larger banks that have branches across the country. Advertisement on investment programs usually appear in almost all the circulation newspaper as they are addressed to small investors. Many banking institutions rent space in several exhibition and print information brochures to describe their activities and service.

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Normally the general public today, believe that for a business organization or enterprises to survive, make profit and even achieve it’s aims and objectives it has to go through advertisement.

However, this system is needed by profit making organization to make their products and services popular and known to the people so that majority of the people can be turned to customers.

Advertising, in this case can be simply defined or said to be the publishing of a particular product or services of a business organization in order to gain the heart of the customers with the aim of making profit. Advertisement of the bank improve the economic development of a country. Therefore, advertising is an important aspect of business formation and growth. It even determines the survival of a bank or an establishment.  After a careful analysis, to think about the quality of the bank product or service need with references to the taste of customers.

All these facts started above must be in place before the bank comes up with a perfect means of advertising techniques that will totally boost the product of banks completely.

Advertisement can be a useful tool to promote your product above that of competitors. It serves as a promotional tool in any organization that has to aim and objectives of profit maximization. For a bank to last long, its products in the market must undergo certain advertisement.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Most individuals in the word today do not believes in advertisement as a promotional tools of making profit in business organization . This is as a result of the fact that they believe advertising is just to show case product to entire public in order to make profit. But it is unfortunate that even large establishment still lack the mentally of getting their product advertised, instead, they only engage their product in sales promotion which will definite fade out within as short time. An adage says that “free things are inferior” that is to say they are not valuable to the customers. Let’s take a critical look at problems faced by the bank.

–           Lack of awareness of the common duty.

–           Much value or services by the consumers

–           Risk of loosing the customers.

 

1.3       RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHEIS   

The project research will attempt to provide answer to the following research questions, which are as follow

i           What is the relationship between advertising and bank growth?

ii          How can a bank make best of advertising to its own advantage?

iii         Is it true that lack of advertising contributes to the failure of a bank or business organization?

iv         Is there any relationship between advertising and bank product?

 

  • OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Objectives of this study are as stated below:

  1. To find out if there is any relationship between advertising and bank products.
  2. To make appropriate research on various advertising media which are of good importance to bank product?
  3. To look at how advertising led to bank profitability.

 

 

1.5       SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

This research will focus mainly on the issue concerning advertising as a promotional tool in relation to the success and survival of bank products.

This study meant to see into ways by which United bank for Africa (UBA) goes about advertisement in order to obtain the essential market share.

 

1.6       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following factors sees as constraints to the research while carrying out this study.

  1. Time constraint
  2. Financial factor
  • Competent responds

 

1.7       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UNITED BANK FOR AFRICA (UBA) PLC

History of United Bank for Africa (UBA) dated back to 1949 when the British and French Bank Limited “BFB” commenced business in Nigeria. Today, United Bank for Africa Plc (UBA) is the product of the merger of Nigeria’s third (3rd) and Fifth (5th) Largest banks, namely  the old UBA and the Standard Trust Bank (STB) respectively and a subsequent acquisition of the erstwhile Continental Trust Bank Limited (CBT). The union emerged as the first successful corporate combination in the history of Nigeria banking.

United Bank for Africa (UBA) back to 1948 when the British and French Bank Limited commenced business in Nigeria and the erstwhile STB and CTB both in 1990. Following Nigeria’s independence from Britain, UBA was incorporated in 1961 to take over the business of British and French Bank (BFB). Although today’s UBA emerged at a time of industrial consolidation induced by regulation. The consolidation UBA was borne out of a desire to lead the domestic sector to a new era of global relevance by championing the creation of the Nigeria consumer finance market, leading a private/public sector partnership at supporting the acceleration of Nigeria economic development and growing the institution from a banking to a one-step financial services institution. While spearing its footprints across Africa to earn the reputation as the face of banking on the continent.

Today, United Bank for Africa Plc (UBA), having adopted the holding company model is one of Africa’s leadings financial institution offering universal banking to more than 7.2 million customers across 750 branches in 18 Africa countries with presence in New York, London and Paris and assets in excess of $ 19 bn, UBA is your partner for banking services for Africans and African related business globally.

UBA has the largest distribution network in Nigeria with over 6.5 million customers in personal, commercial and corporate market segments. As of 30 September 2008, it had over 650 business offices, 296 deployed POS and 1332 ATMS and pioneered cheque acceptance ATMS in Nigeria. Its over 14,000 staff globally are also referred to as “Lions and Lionesses”. Regionally, the group has a presence in 18 African countries and in all major financial centres. The bank currently operates in Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory coast, Cameroon, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Uganda, Benin, Burkina Faso and Senegal and has unfolded plans to expand its banking operations to 15 additional countries in Africa come 2009.

Records indicate that UBA is the only Sub-Saharan bank with dual presence in the U.S and the U.K.

 

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERM

Some basics terms used in this particular research project include the followings;

  1. ADVERTISING:- This is any means aimed at persuading member of the

public to procure or  purchase of  a particular product or services.

  1. CONSUMER:- This is the person to which the advertisement and products/services are directed.

iii         PROMOTION:- According to Adewoyin O.A (2004) promotion Is any techniques that are persuasive communication, favourable information about sellers product to potential buyers. It also provides a basis for all activities of the organization that are perceived in the market. But in planning their communication, promotion by definition, is any techniques that persuasively convince the consumer to buy.

  1. MEDIA:- This is a kind of equipment used for listening to programmes that

are broadcast to a large heterogeneous audience. It is also a process of sending and receiving messages through the air using electro-magnetic waves. It  is an electronic devices which brings to us information, education, entertainment, persuasion, selling, educative, news interpretation and persuasive programmes it is a great communicating mechanism ever designed and operate by man.