A SURVEY OF VOCATIONAL PROBLEMS EXPERIENCE BY PROFESSIONAL SECRETARIES (A CASE STUDY OF PHCN ENUGU)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction

  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Purpose of the study
  • Significance of the study
  • Scope of the study
  • Research questions
  • Definition of terms

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Review of related literature

  • The concept of secretary
  • What is business and public organizations
  • Qualities of a secretary
  • The role of a secretary
  • Duties of a secretary
  • Lack of recognition of the secretary
  • The secretary and job motivation
  • The secretary and technological innovation

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Research design and methodology

  • Design of the study
  • Population of the study and sample size
  • Area of study
  • Instrument for data collection
  • Validity and reliability of research instrument
  • Method of data analysis

CHAPTER FOUR

  • Data presentation and analysis

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Summary of finding recommendation and conclusion

  • Introduction
  • Summary of findings
  • Recommendation
  • Conclusions
  • Limitations of the study

References

Appendix sample of research questionnaires

 

LIST OF TABLE

Table 1 population of distribution             24

Table 2 simple selection                                       25

Table 3 responses to question 1                           28

Table 4 responses to question 2                           29

Table 5 responses to question 3                           30

Table 6 responses to question 4                           31

Table 7 responses to question 5                           31

Table 8 responses to question 6                           32

Table 9 responses to question 7                           33

Table 10 responses to question 8               34

Table 11 responses to question 9               34

Table 12 responses to question 10             34

Table 13 responses to question 11             35

Table 14 responses to question 12             35

Table 15 responses to question 13             36

Table 16 responses to question 14             36

Table 17 responses to question 15             36

Table 18 responses to question 16             38

Table 19 responses to question 17             39

Table 20 responses to question 18             39

Table 21 responses to question 19             40

 

ABSTRACT

This research work is an investigation into the vocational problems experience by professional secretaries in PHCN Enugu.

In pursuance of this investigation three research objectives were used the researcher utilized the survey method.

The data gathered mainly through questionnaires. The fifty questionnaires were given to secretaries in PHCN Enugu and the number returned was forty (40) duly completed.

The researcher made use of survey method reference books in the library and published articles and at the end some dedications were made.

With the research method mentioned above some problems were identified which include inter sexual abuse insecurity inadequacy of modern machines poor working conditions abuse of the secretary role.

The research further made some recommendation, which include better condition of services better working environment improved cordial relationship between the boss and the secretary.

Finally although the researcher uncounted the usual handicap normally associated with this type of exercise she was able to surmount them

CHAPTER ONE

                                                INTRODUCTION

  • Background of the Study

The secretary is beset with a lot of problems in the course of discharging their duties or responsibilities in IBEDC Ibadan

These problems may arise from both the job environment and from her duties.

Thus the functions of a secretary in IBEDC Ibadan are that of coordinating personnel of various arms of an establishment that pass through her and she is despondence to the appropriate office for action secretaries are pivots on which management revolves and she is the life wire of an organization. This means that she is expected to be the communication link between the organization and the outside world as well as within the organization. It is her duty to ensure that information is passed across. Hence the aim of the researcher in tackling this topic is to identify the numerous problem that faced a secretary in carrying out his or her duties. The researcher will also use this opportunity to recommended a lasting solution to these problems. This topic is worth investigation because the researcher will attempt to expose the problems and provide solutions to secretarial functions.  The topic will also be very useful to IBEDC Ibadan.

  • Statement of the study

The problems encountered by secretaries have been characterized by a lot of phenomenal changes in recent time most of these problems are caused mainly by the management of IBEDC Ibadan thereby hindering the activities or duties of the secretary in the organization.  Further it has been noticed that the secretary is faced with a lot of problems such as inadequate provision of facilities under/over utilization of the secretaries abuse of roles of the secretary inadequate remuneration and poor working environment in fact I have seen secretaries leaving this profession even in IBEDC Ibadan because of these problem

This study is therefore designed to address the vocation problems experienced by professional secretaries in IBEDC Ibadan in Oyo state.

  • Purpose of the Study

This study is aimed at

  1. Identifying the problems experienced by the secretary in the course of discharging her duties in IBEDC Ibadan.
  2. Identifying the effects of these problems on the secretary in particular and the organization in general
  • Suggesting ways of motivating the secretary to be efficient and effective in the performance of her duties
  1. Making recommendation for solution to the problem of the secretary
    • Significant of the study

The problems experienced by the secretary when identified could help the IBEDC to improve the working conditions of the secretary.

In the same way the problems when identified would enlighten the new entrants into the profession to understand that the profession is not free from problems. The study will identify way of motivating a secretary for optimal performance and better utilization

  • Scope of the study

The required information and added to the fact that the period within the study was to be completed is very short the researcher was forced to limit the scope of the study to IBEDC Ibadan in Oyo state

  • Research Questions

The following research questions designed by the researcher will lead her to a definite conclusion

  1. What are the problems encountered by secretaries in the course of discharging their duties
  2. What are the effects of these problem on the secretary in particular and the organization in general
  3. In what ways can an organization motivate the secretary
  4. What do you suggest could ensure effective utilization of the secretary to ensure organizational growth.
  • Definition of terms

For easy understanding and assimilation of this study some of the terms are defined below.

Secretary:   A secretary is someone who works in an office-typing document keeping records and arranging meetings.

Business:  All profit seeking activities and enterprises that provide goods and services necessary to encourage economic growth.

Organization: Organizations are often described as “concerns” business corporations and by various names. A structured process in which people interact to accomplish objectives

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THE IMPACT TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM) ON CORPORATE PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF DIAMOND BANK , OSOGBO , OSUN STATE)

ABSTRACT   

Several years of military misrule and mismanagement had weakened the economic management processes and institutions in Nigeria. There was no transparency and accountability in government (Public Sector) and private sectors and Nigeria became notorious for endemic corruption. The result was the inability of government to deliver corruption. Most private companies both in the oil and non-oil sector have constantly evade taxes and have collide with officials to evade custom duties and payment of taxes. In addition, widespread perpetration of economic and financial crime banking fraud and fraud (419), money laundering, cyber crime, banking fraud and endemic corruption have had severe negative consequences on Nigeria. Consequently, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) was established as one of the mechanisms for the prevention, investigation and prosecution of corrupt practices and economic and financial crimes in the public and the private sector. Finally, this research work is aimed at looking into the various contributions of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) in promoting financial accountability and transparency. To achieve this aim five research questions were developed. The study adopted the survey research approach using the three study areas. The EFCC Lagos, EFCC Enugu ad PHCN formed the population of the study. A sample size of 55 was choosing using Taro Yamane’s model while simple random techniques were used to select the sample. Data retrieved from 55 completed questionnaires were subsequently  presented in tables while simple percentage were used to analyze and answer the research questions formulated to guide the research work. After the analysis of data, the hypothesis tested reviewed that the contributions of EFCC has effectively promoted financial accountability and transparency in Nigeria. Therefore, the researcher recommends the following: developing an intensified information technology, staff training, capacity building and health care fraud control.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

v

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

     PAGE

Title                                                                                                                             i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi – vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               2

1.3       Research Objectives                                                                                        2

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         3

1.5       Research Hypothesis                                                                                       3

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               4

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                         5

1.8       Limitations of the Study                                                                                 5

1.9       Historical Background of the study                                                             5-6

1.10     Organizational charts                                                                                      7

1.11    Definition of Terms                                                                         8-9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           10

2.1       The Development of the production plan                                                      10

2.2       production control system and documentation                                              10-13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                   14

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             14

3.3       Population and Sample Size                                                                           15

 

vi

 

 

 

3.4       Research Instrument for Data Collection                                                       15

3.5       Method of Data Collection                                                                                         15

3.6       Method of Data Analysis                                                                               15-16

CHAPTER FOUR  

4.0       Data Analysis and Interpretation                                                                    17-18

4.1       Data Presentation                                                                                            19

  • Analysis of Questionnaire 20

4.3       Testing of Hypothesis                                                                                     20-24

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, Conclusion, Recommendations and Suggestion

for Further Study                                                                                            25

5.1       Summary                                                                                                         25

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      25

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          26

Appendix I                                                                                                      27

Appendix II (Questionnaire)                                                                                     27

 

Bibliography

 

VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE POWER OPTIMIZATION IN DISTRIBUTION POWER SYSTEMS WITH HIGH PHOTOVOLTAIC PENETRATION

ABSTRACT

High-penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g., by minimizing thermal losses.

We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e., local). In general, we find that local control schemes are able to maintain voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for night time operation.

KEYWORDS: Distributed generation; feeder line; photovoltaic (PV) power generation; power flow; voltage control

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Displacing fossil-fired generation with renewable generation has many desirable outcomes, e.g., reduction in pollution and CO2 emissions, and a significant challenge, i.e., reliable delivery of electrical power of acceptable qualitynearly100%ofthetime. The renewable generation will contain many different resources including wind, concentrating solar power, and photovoltaic (PV) at the transmission-scale, but with PV as the only presently viable option at the distribution scale. (Baran,2016)The one challenge stated above is actually a family of challenges because each of these renewable options affects reliability and power quality in different and often multiple ways. At the transmission scale, renewable generation projects are generally large enough to warrant individual transmission interconnection studies intended uncover issues that may need to be mitigated by the renewable generation owner, such as installing certain additional equipment or operating in certain ways to mitigate the problems.

In this case, the cost of mitigation is borne by the generator creating the problem. At the distribution scale, the size of an individual PV generator is so small that the cost of aBanter connection study^ would be prohibitive. However, when the penetration of PV generators on any particular distribution circuit is low, the impact is quite small and present utility systems are generally unaffected. However, at higher penetrations the net impact of many small PV generators may accumulate and affect power quality, e.g., slowly responding utility equipment (tap changers, switchable capacitors, etc.) not keeping pace with cloud-induced rapid variations of PV generation resulting in loss of voltage regulation. Fast response equipment could be installed to rectify the problem (e.g., a (Baran, 2016)), but the cost is borne by the entire rate base instead of the owners of the PV generators who are benefiting from the interconnection to the distribution grid. A potential solution to the voltage regulation problem is to tap into the latent excess PV inverter capacity to generate or consume reactive power to control voltage. Although not permitted by current interconnection standards, changes to these standards to allow for injecting or consuming reactive power appear eminent. Under this scheme, the burden of providing adequate reactive power compensation is again placed upon the generator seeking access to the grid. However, many questions still remain including the following:

  1. How to dispatch the excess capacity to handle major changes in circuit conditions, e.g., rapid change from a net real power export to net real power import?
  2. How to split the reactive compensation duty equitably between the PV generators?
  • Whether the control should be centralized (potentially vulnerable), distributed (perhaps more robust), or a combination of the two?
  1. Whether centralized or distributed, what variables should be used as inputs to the control algorithm? Despite the challenges related to accommodating PV generators, there is also an opportunity for the utility to leverage the inverters of these PV generators to enhance its own performance such as improving power quality (i.e., voltage regulation) and reducing distribution losses via optimal management of reactive power flows. However, these should be accomplished without placing undue burdens on the PV generators by either via excessive dispatch of reactive power or by limiting PV generation

1.1       TECHNIQUES OF REACTIVE COMPENSATION

Traditional power systems are designed vertically. Power is generated at large power plants, it is then delivered to consumers via a hierarchical network of transmission and distribution grids. In distribution systems, the voltage is normally controlled only at the entry point (substation), and then it sags down the distribution lines, mainly because of consumption of reactive power by end consumers and the impedance of the distribution lines. A number of technologies are employed in the modern power systems to compensate for the flux of reactive power and thus to improve the power quality in the system. These technologies compensate for the drop of voltage using controlled injections of reactive power at a few locations. In this Section we briefly review some of these existing technologies which are also relevant to our own work discussed in the following sections.

 

VOLTAGE AND REACTIVE POWER OPTIMIZATION IN DISTRIBUTION POWER SYSTEMS WITH HIGH PHOTOVOLTAIC PENETRATION

ABSTRACT

High-penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g., by minimizing thermal losses.

We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e., local). In general, we find that local control schemes are able to maintain voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for night time operation.

KEYWORDS: Distributed generation; feeder line; photovoltaic (PV) power generation; power flow; voltage control

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Displacing fossil-fired generation with renewable generation has many desirable outcomes, e.g., reduction in pollution and CO2 emissions, and a significant challenge, i.e., reliable delivery of electrical power of acceptable qualitynearly100%ofthetime. The renewable generation will contain many different resources including wind, concentrating solar power, and photovoltaic (PV) at the transmission-scale, but with PV as the only presently viable option at the distribution scale. (Baran,2016)The one challenge stated above is actually a family of challenges because each of these renewable options affects reliability and power quality in different and often multiple ways. At the transmission scale, renewable generation projects are generally large enough to warrant individual transmission interconnection studies intended uncover issues that may need to be mitigated by the renewable generation owner, such as installing certain additional equipment or operating in certain ways to mitigate the problems.

In this case, the cost of mitigation is borne by the generator creating the problem. At the distribution scale, the size of an individual PV generator is so small that the cost of aBanter connection study^ would be prohibitive. However, when the penetration of PV generators on any particular distribution circuit is low, the impact is quite small and present utility systems are generally unaffected. However, at higher penetrations the net impact of many small PV generators may accumulate and affect power quality, e.g., slowly responding utility equipment (tap changers, switchable capacitors, etc.) not keeping pace with cloud-induced rapid variations of PV generation resulting in loss of voltage regulation. Fast response equipment could be installed to rectify the problem (e.g., a (Baran, 2016)), but the cost is borne by the entire rate base instead of the owners of the PV generators who are benefiting from the interconnection to the distribution grid. A potential solution to the voltage regulation problem is to tap into the latent excess PV inverter capacity to generate or consume reactive power to control voltage. Although not permitted by current interconnection standards, changes to these standards to allow for injecting or consuming reactive power appear eminent. Under this scheme, the burden of providing adequate reactive power compensation is again placed upon the generator seeking access to the grid. However, many questions still remain including the following:

  1. How to dispatch the excess capacity to handle major changes in circuit conditions, e.g., rapid change from a net real power export to net real power import?
  2. How to split the reactive compensation duty equitably between the PV generators?
  • Whether the control should be centralized (potentially vulnerable), distributed (perhaps more robust), or a combination of the two?
  1. Whether centralized or distributed, what variables should be used as inputs to the control algorithm? Despite the challenges related to accommodating PV generators, there is also an opportunity for the utility to leverage the inverters of these PV generators to enhance its own performance such as improving power quality (i.e., voltage regulation) and reducing distribution losses via optimal management of reactive power flows. However, these should be accomplished without placing undue burdens on the PV generators by either via excessive dispatch of reactive power or by limiting PV generation

1.1       TECHNIQUES OF REACTIVE COMPENSATION

Traditional power systems are designed vertically. Power is generated at large power plants, it is then delivered to consumers via a hierarchical network of transmission and distribution grids. In distribution systems, the voltage is normally controlled only at the entry point (substation), and then it sags down the distribution lines, mainly because of consumption of reactive power by end consumers and the impedance of the distribution lines. A number of technologies are employed in the modern power systems to compensate for the flux of reactive power and thus to improve the power quality in the system. These technologies compensate for the drop of voltage using controlled injections of reactive power at a few locations. In this Section we briefly review some of these existing technologies which are also relevant to our own work discussed in the following sections.

 

EFFECT OF A GOOD DISTRIBUTION NETWORK ON SALES VOLUME IN A CONFECTIONERY INDUSTRY (A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BOTTLING COMPANY PLC, LAGOS)

ABSTRACT

This research work endeavors to analyze and x-ray how packaging functions as an instrument of increasing sales volume in manufacturing companies with specific references to Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Lagos (Cocoa-cola). It examines the packaging strategies that are available for use by small scale companies in packaging their products; their respective effect and consequences on both company in achieving their aims, objectives and that of the consumers in enhancing the utilities derived and eventual increase in sales volume. This research work intends to divulge the significance and functions which packaging plays in increasing sales volume in manufacturing industries. Questionnaires method was employed to carry out the research, having properly administered the questionnaires; the data collected was thereby analyzed. The hypothesis testing with the usage of chi-square method was displayed. With the above information thereby, it is assumed that the reader may not have any problem in understanding how packaging serves as an instrument of increasing sales volume in manufacturing industries.TABLE OF CONTENT

Title i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of contents v – vi
Abstract vii

Chapter One
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 1
1.3 Objective of the study 2
1.4 Research question 2
1.5 Research hypothesis 2
1.6 Significance of the study 3
1.7 Scope of the study 3
1.8 Limitation of the study 3 – 4
1.9 Definition of terms 4
1.10 Historical background of the case study 4 – 5

Chapter Two
2.0 Literature review 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Definition of concept 6
2.3 Explanation with necessity 6 – 20

Chapter Three
3.0 Research Methodology 21
3.1 Study population and sampling process 21
3.2 Sources of data collection 21
3.4 Questionnaire design 21
3.5 Method of data analysis 22

Chapter Four
4.0 Data presentation and analysis 23 – 26
4.1 Testing Hypothesis 27 – 28
4.2 Interpretation of hypothesis 28

Chapter Five
5.0 Summary of finding 29
5.1 Conclusion drawn from finding 29
5.2 Recommendation based on conclusion 29 – 30
References 31
Appendix I 32
Appendix II 33 – 34
List of tables 35
Organizational chart 36

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
The effective and efficiency on any business organization lies on how well and easy its products get to the prospective consumers consequence upon margin for the organization.
Effective distribution network is the chance through which organizations product move from the manufacture to the final consumers at the right time, right package, at a very reasonable cost.
One of the management responsibilities of business organization is to desktop a proper means of getting the company’s product to the consumers and this will be done through the use of distribution network than is effective and efficient.
A competent and effective marketing manager recognize a proper distribution network as a going continuous price is role one short actively new problem government policy and environment forces are those among others that should be choosing a distribution network that will increase the volume of sales in an organization.
Finally, the concepts of good distribution network tend to reflects the means through which a company’s products are moved from one producers to the final consumer.

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Background of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, Lagos, Nigeria bottling company plc, (NBC) the maker of non-alcoholic beverage like Cocoa-cola, Fanta, Sprite, Soda water, Crest, Eva water, Cappy juice, 5 alive e.t.c was established in the year 1951 under registered name (NBC) it was for the manufacturing of all those aforementioned products b in its inception.
Nigeria bottling company plc was incorporated as a subsidiary of A.G Lever group and it kicked off as a family business and has metamorphosis into a soft drink- company.
It is discovered that the current distribution network of this organization is direct in which merchant. Middle men are involve but the agent middle are executed from the chain.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The basic problem of this research work is to determine the effects of a good distribution network on sale volume in a beverage product.
Effort is to be made to determine what good distribution network will have to the profitability and viability which in the long run bring effective and efficient of a business.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
There are numerous objectives carrying out research work essentially the main objectives is to evaluate the effectiveness of better distribution network on sales volume of a manufacturing industry.
Furthermore, the study is aimed at;
Finding out most appropriate network to be used in distribution of goods in an organization particularly confectionary industry
Finding out various means of distribution in an organization.
Recommendation more systematic, purposeful and consumers oriented method of distribution that will yield maximum sales volume of the organization.
Finding out what organization intends to benefit from applying effective distribution network.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
A question design is a well prepared list of information meant for respondent(s) to complete. It is mostly used when to collect fact or data it could be inform of objective or subjective.
Question must posses the following characteristic among other:
Introduction title
Objective of the survey
Questions are of two types they are for this research work. The research questions to be used among other are as follow:
Does distribution network contribution to an organization?
Does distribution network have effect on organization?
Does effective distribution network increase the profit making ability of the company?

1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Research hypothesis for this work make use of null and alternative hypothesis:
Ho: There is no significant relationship between distribution network on sales volume in a confectionary industry.
Hi: There is significant relationship between distribution network on sales volume in a confectionary industry.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study cannot be overemphasis especially in these days when organization are facing serious distribution related to problem like due to non chalet attitude of workers to distribution network. The management and union faculty that create industrial delay in promotion that leads to frustrating the workers.
These problems will be logically and systematically examine.
The student studying for how distribution of goods will be use in all aspect of carrying out related distribution network be treated.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study will try to illustrate how distribution network affect sales volume of confectionary industry from one to the last chapter.
Precisely, the study will be looking into the effect of good distribution network on sales volume in a confectionary industry and it shall look into what distribution network is, the objective and importance.
The study shall also look into some foreign and local texts that concern distribution network so as to develop a well though out explanation on distribution network and it effort on sale.
Lastly, the study will include the method of data collection the analysis of collected data and the drawing of summary and conclusion of the finding and recommendation.

THE EFFECT OF MARKET SEGMENTATION ON SALES VOLUME IN A MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES (A CASE STUDY OF ENPEE INDUSTRIAL PLC LAGOS)

ABSTRACT

 

The topic for this project was visualized by me and scrutinized, criticized and then modified within the effort of my supervisor Mrs. Olaoye. This project principally focuses on the effect of market segmentation on sales volume in a manufacturing industry with reference to Enpee industries plc Lagos. It helps an organization or government to segment their market who smaller divisions so as to service the consumers effecting, because the customer are too many with different characteristics of buying behaviour or requirements. Market can be segmented on geographic, demographic, psycho-graphics and other behaviouristic variable. To be ultimately useful the segment should be measurable accessible and substantial. The source of data used for this research work are primary and secondary data. Primary source of data studies, the use of question was employed for collecting primary data, information were gathered from selected staff using structured and unstructured questionnaire so as information while secondary source of data include, consultation of textbooks, magazine dictionary and various books relating to market segmentation.

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

Chapter One

1.0.      Introduction                                                                            1 – 2

1.1.      Background of the problem                                                    2

1.2.      The statement of problem                                                       2 – 3

1.3.      The objective                                                                           3

1.4.      Research question

1.5       Statement of hypothesis                                                         3 – 4

1.6.      Significance of the study                                                        4

1.7.      Scope and limitation of the study                                           4 – 5

1.8.      Limitation of the study

1.9       Historical background of case study

1.10     Definition of terms                                                                 5 – 6

 

Chapter Two

2.0.      Literature Review                                                                   8

2.1       Introduction

2.2       Theoretical framework

 

Chapter Three

3.0.      Research methodology                                                           17

3.1       Introduction

3.2       Research design

3.3       The study population

3.4       Sources method and sample size

3.5       Data collections instrument

3.6       Method collections instrument

 

Chapter Four

4.0.      Presentation and analysis of data

4.1.      Data  presentation and analysis responses                              19 – 25

4.2       Discussion of findings

 

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and recommendation

5.1.      Summary of the study                                                            28

5.2.      Conclusion                                                                              28 – 29

5.3.      Recommendations                                                                  29 – 30

5.4       Suggestion for further research

Appendix                                                                                32 – 34

Bibliography                                                                           31

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.1       INTRODUCTION

The effect of market segmentation on the sale volume manufacturing industry is concerned with theory and practice of dividing a market into definable groups, usually to improve marketing performance, frequently different segments of a market have individual behavioural patterns and require a different approaches for success to be achieved. And the firm because this has implication on the firm profit, which is the firm principal objective of running a firm.

Actually before anything could be said on market segmentation, the term market segmentation need to be defined.

 

Kolter and Arm-Strong (1996) define market segmentation as a process of dividing a market into distinct group of buyers on the basis of needs characteristics or behaviour who might require separate product or marketing mix.

This is so, because market consist of many types of customers, products, needs and the market has to determine which segments offer the best opportunity for achieving company objectives.

Leader (1995) define market segmentations the process of dividing a market into the homogenous segment that collectively constitute the market that to being segmented. This is due to the fact that consumers may buy different goods according to their sex, ages, group, income, occupation or even geographic location. It should therefore be evident that marketing organization must attempt to develop or adopt product to satisfy specific must attempt to develop or adapt product to satisfy specific group of consumers.

Modern defines market segmentation vital issue in the study of marketing which has to within the analysis of a particular total market  demand to its consentient parts, so that of buyer can be differentiated both as a marketing tool and as a basic input to market and business planning.

The customers are too numerous widely scattered and heterogonous in their buying requirement i.e. buying behaviour. This is why the marketer has the responsibilities segment its market into smaller division, so as serve the customer effectively.

Finally marketing managers must segment their market for efficient utilization of the limited resources and to facilitate identification of the golden opportunity abounding in the market to boost the sales volume of the organization.

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The company (Enpee Textile Industries Plc) has been using geographical segmentation method. Their marketing segment North, East West and Lagos. Through each segment is identified with a particular product, each one of them buys (in small proportion) products meant for other segments.

The cost of maintaining each segment differs and the returns  (sales) from each market also differ.

There are a lot of questions to be asked when carrying out the process.

  • Can market segmentation affect a sales volume
  • How is market segmentation related to profit maximization?
  • Can a manufacturing company do without market segmentation?

These and other questions will be examined with a view to providing appropriate answer.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objectives of this study are:

  • To enable the company to set standard sales target for each market segment.
  • To enable the company top evacuate them mission and cost incurred on the each segment.
  • To contribute significantly to the not-profit generated by the concerned company.
  • To examine the conditions necessary before segmenting a market.
  • After the completion of the study, it may equally assist the concerned company to make necessary correction where there are tactical lapses, and lastly to examine the relationship between market segmentation and sales volume in a manufacturing organization.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

A scientific research must have research questions. The research questions give will order and direction to the research study as a whole. The research questions are regarded as a whole. The research questions are regarded as an expansion of the research problem. The followings are question drawn.

  1. Has the market segmentation method increased sales volume of the company?
  2. Has market efforts helped in stimulating more sales in the market segments?

iii.        Is there any relationship between market segmentation and sales volume?

 

1.5       STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis to be used as tools for this research work are the alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis are started as follows:

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between market segmentation and increased in sales volume of the company.                             

Hi:       There is significant relationship between market segmentation and increased in sales volumes of the company.

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between market and profit making ability of the company.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between market segmentation and profit making ability of the company.

 

1.6       THE SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

–           The significant of the study is to undergo a article examination of the impact of market segmentation or sale volume and method used in the selection of market segment with the hope of determining the contribution from each segment and to know whether the we of other marketing efforts in each segment will be profitable.      

–           The findings of this research work will be useful to the organization under study and other similar organization.

–           It will also be helpful to future researches of same topic within and the state.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This research work focuses the impact of market segmentation on sales volume in manufacturing industries with more emphasis on geographical method of organization. The study will also cover the types of market, definition of segmentation method of the segmenting industrial and consumer markets etc. the research is conducted in Epee industrial Lagos.

 

1.8       LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The limitation of this study are as follows:

  • The researcher did face some problems, which includes the collection of data especially the so called classified information which is highly needed for the research project.
  • The time log for carryout the study is very short, out of this time the research has to attend to many other academic works apart from carryout the research work.
  • The researcher also lacks enough materials and he is financially handicapped.

 

1.9       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Around 1968, the idea was conceived to primarily start factory to produce embroidery laces the traditional textile of Nigeria. Encouraged by the policy of the Federal Government of Nigeria, the company was registered with the business incorporation number RC 55909 and commercial production started in January, 1970 Today Enpee Industries Plc, is one of the leader of the Nigeria textile in the world and its product includes

  1. Laces –           Terylene and special voile laces
  2. Shirting’s –           plan, dobby and check shirting
  3. Suiting –           Plain and fancy designs
  4. Bed sheeting –           Dynes and printed

The processing and embroidery factory is located at Ilupeju Industrial Estate, Lagos and the weaving factory is at mature industrial Estate, Ilupeju Lagos.

In the early seventies when the company was producing only the embroidery lace, its sales and distribution effect were focused on the Lagos markets an some part of the Western Nigeria markets with the introduction of more products (shirting’s, suiting  and sheeting’s) the company diversified its efforts to the North, East and the West market in addition to its former market (Lagos) each of the market area is identified with different textile materials are given below:

North segment                        –           Cotton

East segment               –           Furnishing and suiting

West segment              –           Laces and cotton

Lagos segment            –           Laces and suiting

Due to the different products needs of different markets. The company segmented their market using the geographical basis – North, East, West and Lag.

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF ENPEE INDUSTRIES PLC, LAGOS  

THE IMPACT OF DELEGATION AUTHORITY ON ORGANIZATION PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF FIRST BANK PLC OSOGBO BRANCH)

ABSTRACT

This is study is to examine the impact of effective channel of distribution policies on organizational sales volume of a business organization with reference to Unilever Nigeria Plc. Apapa Lagos as a case study. Journal textbook and other literature were used to provide practical background for the study. A method of research was carried out through the use of set of administered questionnaires to know what is practically obtainable in the Unilever Nigeria Plc Apapa. The respondents were of the view that a reduction in the percentage in the labour force in a year may lead to how productivity and efficiency. However, the research diseases the findings summary. Conclusion recommendations and suggestion for further studies.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vi-vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      Introduction or Background of the Study                                                      1

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                              1 – 2

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                              2 – 3

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                  3

1.4       Significance of the Study                                                                               3

1.5       limitation of the Study                                                                                    3 – 4

1.6       Scope and limitations of the Study                                                                4

1.7       Historical Background of the Study                                                               4 – 5

1.8       Organization Chart of the Study                                                                    6

1.8       Definitions of Terms                                                                                       7 – 9

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                           10 – 18

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research Methodology                                                                                   19

3.1       Research Design                                                                                             19

3.2       Population Size                                                                                               20

3.3       Sample Size                                                                                                     20

3.4       Sources of Data Collection                                                                             20 – 22

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis of Researches                                               23

4.2       Discussion Findings                                                                                        23 – 26

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary of the Study                                                                                    27

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                      28

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                          29

5.4       Suggestion for Further Research                                                                    29

Bibliography                                                                                                   30
Appendix I                                                                                                      31

Appendix II                                                                                                    32 – 33


CHAPTER ONE

 

  • INTRODUCTION OR BACKGROUND OF THE STUDIES

The channel of distribution policy shows the activities of middle men on the
product and how the goods reach the final consumers. Channel of distribution policy is a system applies on how the product will circulates and satisfy the consumers.

The distribution policy involves strategies on how product will be dispatched.
Through the channel goods are passed from manufacturer to either agent, wholesale and retailer before the final or ultimate consumer receives the product.

When product are created, they must be distributed and sales to consumers for
marketing to be completed i.e goods must be distributed to destination where they are
needed at the right time and in the right quantity. Sales and distribution go hand-in-hand since; it is the process of distribution that goods and services are sold to consumers for whom they were meant. Though many attractive in adverts without seeing them in the market place? The good are wanted but producers fail to make them available

 

1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Channel of distribution is a system of marketing through which goods and
services are transferred from the original producer to the ultimate users or consumers. It is the combination of institution (middleman) through which a seller markets his product to the final consumers or a path, traced in the direct or indirect transfer of ownership of a product as it moves from a producer to the ultimate consumers.

The roles played by the distribution channel in the economy cannot be over
emphasized because production is not complete until the goods produced get to the final consumers. The job of getting the goods production to the final consumers is performed by the channels.

The act of making goods and services available where they are wanted is called distributions. This one main function of sales and distribution functions within an
organization. The importance of this management is that sales and distribution function emphasized profitability on return on investment. This department integrates itself
with advertising: research product planning in order to fulfill the objectives of company’s or management. This then bring to our knowledge that marketing requires executive to be
cognizance of the fact that, if there are no customers the business cannot exist or succeed.

The main point to comprehend is that the activities of the sales and distribution rotate
around effective actions should be taking immediately.

It should be noted that the success of a corporate business operation depends to a large extent upon how successful the sales and distributions department perform their functions.

Basically, there are four major element of marketing mix which are the product the price and place otherwise known as physical distribution. What constitute a firm distribution system at any given point in time will basically depend upon the firm market good and the competitive structure of the market. Thus strategy of distribution is employed by a firm to get its product to a market and into the band of the ultimate users.

From the fore-going, it is obvious that proper implementation of sales distribution management in an organization may market the difference between success and failure.
Due to the uncertainly in the market place, it is necessary for both the old and new firm to
embark on effective distribution and sellers system through the market research sales forecasting so as to increase sales marketing shares, customer loyalty and improve on the customer satisfaction and a greater profitability would be achieved.
1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Unilever Nigeria PLC problem can be related to the sales and distribution
department since distribution carries almost 50% of the total marketing mix. It is also
clear that choosing its distribution channel is also a difficult task.. It is understood that the use too many middlemen in the channel of distribution was a contribution factor to the
problem. It is clear that the company policy on distribution is totally inadequate. The
company policy categorically requested an interested distribution to have long sums of money as a depositor especially Nigeria.

Based on this identified problem above this research study will also find solution to the following problem.

  1. How can competitive activities be over came by new sales and distribution strategies?
  2. How can a profit be achieved by new sales and distribution channel?

 

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

There are objectives of the study.

  1. To develop the effective channel and determine the segmentation of the market.
  2. To examine the cordial relationship between the manufacturer and the customer.
  • To examine how the product reach the final consumers.
  1. To examine the distribution channel used in the company.

 

1.4       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The topic is important because is a new area that people have not been concentrate upon.

  1. The study will enable us to known the channel of distribution policy and sales volume of an organization.
  2. It will enable us to understand the various ways of channel of distributions in the organization.
  3. The findings of this company and all others similar organizations it will also be

useful to future researchers of this topics.

  1. It will, also help us to understand the channel of distribution policy and sales volume in a Business organization.

 

1.5       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

            This investigation is limitation to the Apapa Branch of Unilever PLC. The  study cover many activities of middlemen and channel distribution policy it effect on the sale volume and of business organization so the limitation of the study are follows:

  • INADEQUATE TIME: There is no known enough time for researcher there is no enough to carry the research properly.
  • FINANCE: This is another problem confronting researcher there is no enough t carry the research properly.
  • DISTANCE The log distanced from Osun Poly to Unilever Plc Lagos is also problem.
  • There is the problem of funding. and the cost of printing the question.
  • The reluctance of company managers toward going out information to researchers and managers are always reluctant to give me vital information about the company.

 

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The main decision making body is the board of director the managers decision on problem in the course of the day-day running of the company.

This project was written to confirm the impact of effective channel of distribution policies on organization’s sales volume. The research was intended to cover large area
researcher, support works harder to enable accurate result for the presentation Due to the financial constraints and times factors and all other assignment so therefore this research has to he located.

For this research work, various type of employee sales volume and it side effect and possible negative result or outcomes like solutions to sales will also be treated.
There is the problem of funding-and the cost
1.7       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Unilever Nigeria Plc. (RCB) is the largest serving manufacturing company which was in corporate as a private company in 1923 to manufacture soap. Based on local palm oil, Unilever Nigeria strengthened it’s foothold in the foods and drinks, business by merging with Lipton Nigeria limited industry sector.

It engages in the manufacture and marketing of wider range of house hold product for fabric washing house hold. cleaning personal washing, skin care, body care, industrial clearing, manufacturing and food ranging rationalized from five location some years ago to the current three years leading to significant saving and cost effectiveness.

The premier and larges site Apapa is situated at the sunlight key or bar, lux,
breeze, life buy and astral and personal products like close-up respondent and Vaseline. The second oldest site, which is at Aba is devoted to eh production of non-soapy detergent and bars, here they make popular brand such Omo. Rira and Ox powder.

The third and the newest of their plant was commission in 1983 and it is the ultra modem food factories in Agbara were they produce Royco Blue band, Plant tree to and woyo. The company is fully committed to backward integration and self sufficiency and has made considerable progress in the effort towards local sourcing and development of raw materials. Ii is also making investment in oil palm plantation to improve local sourcing Unilever range of quantity product is distributed and salt all inform price all over the country. Though on established and tested distribution networks using appointed distribution supervised by well trained sale force. The company has directed staff strength of 1,939 employers it’s three factories and various distribution points through out the country.

This is the extent to which have .gone like training and developing local management resources. There are only size expatriate and exchanges for manager going overseas to work so as to obtain international experienced. They also provide employment for over six thousand supplier. Transporters and distributors who in turn employ thousands people.

Unilever Nigeria Plc has been dedicated to the product of top quantity brand or
Nigeria for over seventy years. These super brands remain “A must in every home”.

 

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC

THE IMPORTANT OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FAN MILK NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

The whole write up reveals critically the importance of distribution network and customer service in wholesale and retail organization. A case study of Fan Milk Nigeria Plc, Ibadan. It  provides the advantages to be derived from operating a sound distribution network scheme in industry. Further, an extensive review of related literature was undertaken while various method of data collection were used to obtain the necessary information that is the require for the purpose at hand. Finally, recommendation are forwarded which are researcher feel will help Fan Milk Nigeria Plc and other manufacturing companies in general to improve the qualities of their products.    

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Age distribution respondent  
  2. Sex respondents  
  3. Marital status of the respondent
  4. Education qualification
  5. Classes of people working
  6. Year of experience
  7. What are your intention of using middlemen
  8. What role does middlemen play in your organization?
  9. What do you think can motivate you in handling the product of the company?
  10. What are the method adopted by this company to gather information

on how customer react on their product?

  1. What are the improvements of technology in the distribution of the

organization product?

  1. Do you take title of the good handle?
  2. If yes or No what category of middlemen does you belong?

Appendix I

Appendix II

Questionnaire

Organizational Chart

 

             

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title                                                                                                                             i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

List of tables                                                                                                               v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi – vii

Abstract                                                                                                                      viii

 

Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                               1

1.3       Objective of the study                                                                                    2

1.4       Research question                                                                                           2

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                                                        2

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                3

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                          3

1.8       Limitation of the study                                                                                   3 – 4

1.9       Definition of terms                                                                                         4

1.10     Historical background of the case study                                                        4 – 5

 

Chapter Two

2.0      Literature review                                                                                             6

2.1       Distribution channel and the structure

2.2       Participants in distribution channel

2.3       Function of members of chain of distribution

2.4       Method of transportation, distribution network

2.5       Cost of distribution

 

 

Chapter Three

Procedures study, population and sampling

3.0       Study sample

3.1       Sample size

3.2       Sources of data collection

3.3       Questionnaire design analysis

3.4       Method of data

 

Chapter Four

4.0       Data presentation analysis  and discussion

4.1       Interpretation of hypothesis                                                                            28

4.2       Findings

 

Chapter Five            

5.0       Summary of finding                                                                                        29

5.1       Conclusion drawn from finding                                                                     29

5.2       Recommendation based on conclusion                                                           29 – 30

References                                                                                                      31

Appendix I                                                                                                      32

Appendix II                                                                                                    33 – 34

Organizational chart                                                                                        36

CHAPTER ONE

          

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Prior to industrial revolution of 19th century the system of distribution cannot be clearly distinguish because of system that was practice then known as “trade by barter” however the advent of industrial revolution in 19th century up to date has been able to transform some small scale business organization.

Due to the complexity of the business organization there is need for sophisticated distribution network in order to move good and service to where it will be needed. Thus for any organization to achieve its set objectives the management of such firm need to identify some intermediaries that will channel the distribution network.

Some intermediaries such as wholesalers and retailer buy in bulks some acquire the little of the goods and service some other middlemen such as stock broker and stand as a representative customer and more negotiate or behalf of the goods and service.

The agents are also called middlemen. The entire objective can only realize through the role the marketing play in modern economy.

Role of marketing: – The role of marketing play in organization cannot be left out in this introduction similarly the firm sales force and advertising decision depend upon how training and motivation that the dealer is in need of.

Additionally, in order for the role of marketing to complete and for the organization to attain the set goals, the company must embark on long term commitment.

 

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Fan milk was incorporated in November 1961 by Dr. Daniel and its diary plant went into production on the 3rd of June 1963. Its corporate headquarters in Ibadan Eleyele Industrial Estate and another factory in Kano industrial estate with distribution centre nation wide Fan Milk Plc is the producer of the best diary food in the number for all products.

Fan milk production is well organized in all part of the country. The firm organizes its distribution process by making sure that their production is seen even in the street. The fan milk include diet flavoured drink, fanchoco flavoured drinks, fan ice flavoured, fan lolly drink yogo and so on and sofoto

 

 

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

There has always be contention among the distribution network for wholesales and retails organization in the traditional schools of thought. This has lead to finding out the following question. They are as follows: –

  1. Whether the distribution network will improve the activities of wholesales and retail distribution prices.
  2. Whether the distribution available is adequately or inadequately for wholesales and retail organization
  3. What other distribution techniques is highly recognized in distribution process.

 

1.3       OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The major objectives of this project are: –

  1. To examine the organization policy and goods is relation to distribution network, management and customers service in wholesales and retail organization.
  2. To examine how the company has been to implement and carry out the problems that is facing distribution channel and providing a relatively lasting solution to the obstacles
  • To emphasize to what extent the workers of the company are aware of the management and organization distribution.
  1. To find out how many competitors distribution network has affected the activities of the company distribution strategy in the market.

 

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS

It is important that some hypothesis has been tested for the purpose of this study in order to determine the effectiveness of distribution network to wholesales and retail organization.

In this regard, the following questions shall be tested, they are: –

  1. Does distribution network improve the supply of goods and service by the wholesales and retail organization?
  2. Is distribution network limited to intermediaries only?
  • What are the strategy used by the intermediaries to improve the supply of goods and service?        

 

 

 

1.5       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

For the purpose of this research some state of hypothesis are formulated, they are: –

  1. Null hypothesis by Ho
  2. Alternative hypothesis represented by Hi
  3. Hi: There is relationship between distributor network and customer service in wholesales and retail network and customer service in wholesale and retail organization.
  4. Ho: Distribution channel should not be delimited

Hi: Distribution channel should be delimited.

Hi: Distribution channel improve wholesale and retail organization

Hi: Distribution channel does not improve wholesale and retail organization         

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will not doubts go in long way to assist a potential business manager of Fan Milk Plc in order to boost the distribution process of the organization and also help ahead and in term of decision making.

The study will also serve as aid of Fan Milk Plc in the process of enhancing the performance of management in the area of product and marketing concept.

Also the study will enable the management or marketing department of many company like that of Fan Milk to expanding their distribution performance in small area.

 

1.7       SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study will resolve round the state objectives and will be limited in scope to the distribution network of Fan Milk Plc. The study will also examine critical process of distribution strategy by wholesales and retail organization.

However, the scope of this project work may be restricted to Fan Milk Plc in order to guarantee convenience.

 

1.8       LIMITATION OF THE STUDY                               

Negative attitude of respondents is seen to be one of the greatest problems where respondents may not collect the questionnaire and these of some that would still be. The questionnaire would not bother returning them enough, above some respondents would not disclose some fact about the issue being discussed and this hamper the study for the issues at hand.

Some executive would be highly relevant to part away with useful information of the company activities about the distribution procedure.

This kind of attitude creates many problems for the researchers because he/she has not been able to gain access into such relevant information.

The greatest force able limitation are these cost. This is because the expense to be made in preparing, printing and administering of questionnaire to gather information would be a huge amount of money.

Other limiting factor is time as the period of the coincide with the school academic work having to combine, traveling, collecting information writing etc with academic work especially as the final exam lurk around the corner.

 

1.9       DEFINITION OF TERMS

Intensive distribution: Producers of convenience goods are common raw materials typically seek intensive distribution network that is stocking their product in as many outlet as possible, these must have place utility.

Exclusive distribution: This is where a limited number of dealers are granted the exclusive right to contribute the company’s product in their respective territories it often goes with exclusive dealing where the manufacture require these dealers out to carry competing live. Exclusive distribution is found to have extent in distribution of new automobiles, some major appliance and some women’s appeal brands.

Selective Distribution Network: Between intensive and exclusive distribution the use of more than one and less than all the intermediaries who are willing to carry a particular product. The company is that use this kind of network does not have to dissipate effort over man y bullets including many original ones. It can therefore develop good working relating with the selected middlemen and expect that is better than average selling effort.

Brokers: An agent who does not have a direct physical control to the goods in which he deals but represent other buyers or sellers.

Marketing Segment: This is referred to as different individual market.

Marketing Mix: This can be seen as mixing together of the marketing variable (product, price, promotion and place). In the right proportion that will enable the marketing programme to be carried out in a successful manner at any time.

Marketing Modification: These are strategies of altering product characteristics such as quantity, performances of appearance in order to suit consumer.

Marketing Segmentation: This is the process of grouping the real and potential consumer for a commodity or services that posses common characteristics so that the market can formular a marketing programme (strategy) that will reach existence.

Jobber: This agents buys security from his principal and sell in his own name.

Market: Market is refers to an organization of all persons and institution concerned in the exchange of any commodity and who are always kept in concept.

 

1.9       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Fan Milk Nigeria plc was founded in 1960 by a Danish Merchant and an Industrialist Erik Emborg with a recombination plant at Ibadan a distribution centre in Lagos with less than 30 employees.

In the 1970s Fan Milk introduces yoghurt milk, Ice, lollies, ice cream and new tetra packaging technology. The new products became very popular in the market and generated the financial strength to set up further depots and in 1981, a second recombination plant in ranco came up.

At the outset, the foreign partner owned 96% of Fan milk plc, when the government introduce the Nigeria enterprises promotion Decree in the late 1970s. Fan milk plc increase its capital and invited more Nigerians to invest which created a 60% Nigerian participation in the company.

During 1980s and 1990s import restriction economic difficulties, devaluations and shortages of fuel weakened Fan Milk plc. In 1998 the foreign partner and the industrialization fund for developing countries (Denmark) agreed to an infusion of capital which let the company restructure finances refurbish cold rooms, increase the number of depots and introduce a product (Tomico) a fruit drink which became an instant success in the market.                         

THE IMPORTANCE OF DISTRIBUTION NETWORK AND CUSTOMER SERVICE IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF FAN MILK NIGERIA PLC)

ABSTRACT

 

The important of distribution network and customer service in wholesalers and retails organization is the focus to demonstrate. It obvious that no producer can deny the important of distribution channel in today economy world. The kind of distribution medium available are what will be consider along will meaning of organization chart and selectivity distribution. Similarly, chapter two emphases on definition of distribution network from different scholars of thought. The essence of this is to eject the two prefaces and understanding of distribution to wholesales and retail organization. Chapter three will be focusing on method of data and information collection, so that information can be search for, guide keep, process, store and produce the outcome. Fact analysis and finding are the major aspect of chapter four. This chapter is base on activities performed by the middlemen in distribution network. Conclusively, the last chapter for the project concludes with recommendation and welcomes any advice on some shortcoming from the previous chapter. The summary of the preceding chapter are also part of the final part.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.1       Background of the study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the problem                                                                               1 – 2

1.3       Objectives of the study                                                                                   2

1.4       Research questions                                                                                          2

1.5       Research hypothesis                                                                                        2 – 3

1.6       Significance of the study                                                                                3

1.7       Scope of the study                                                                                          3

1.8       Limitation of the study                                                                                   3 – 4

1.9       Definition of terms                                                                                         4 – 5

1.10     Historical background of the case study                                                        5

1.11     Organizational chart of the case study                                                           6

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature review                                                                                             7

2.1       Distribution channel and its structure                                                             8

2.2       Participants in distribution channel                                                                 8 – 9

2.3       Function of the members of chain distribution                                               9 – 12

2.4       Method of transportation, distribution network                                             12 – 13

2.5       Cost of distribution                                                                                         13

2.6       Customers service in wholesale and retail firm                                               14 – 15

 


CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   16

3.1       Study population and sampling procedure                                                     16

3.2       Study sample                                                                                                  16

3.3       Sample size                                                                                                     16

3.4       Sources of data collection                                                                               16

3.5       Questionnaire design                                                                                      17

3.6       Method of data analysis                                                                                 17

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Data presentation, analysis and discussion                                                     18 – 21

4.1       Hypothesis testing                                                                                          21 – 22

4.2       Interpretation of hypothesis / findings                                                           22  – 23

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Summary, conclusion and recommendation                                                   24

5.1       Summary of finding                                                                                        24

5.2       Conclusion drawn from the finding                                                               24 – 25

5.3       Recommendation based on conclusion.                                                          25

Bibliography                                                                                                   26

Appendix                                                                                                        27

Questionnaires                                                                                                28 – 31

THE RELEVANCE OF ACCOUNTING STANDARD IN CORPORATE FINANCIAL REPORTING IN NIGERIA.

ABSTRACT

The focus on this study is to provide empirical frame work for the appreciation of the relevance of accounting standard in cooperate financial reporting in the Nigeria private sector viz – a –viz the ever – increasing demand of the user of financial statements. It reflects on the scope of coverage provided by statement of account standards (S.A.S) issued, by the Nigerian Accounting Standard Board (NASB) for business activities in the Nigeria economy. Also, it is to be reference work for further research topic. The study is design to proffer solution to the problem of limited information in the financial statement, non – compliance of reporting enterprises with SAS and the slow, untimely response of SAS issued from time to time. The study draws the view of people through questionnaire administration regarding the relevance of accounting standard in corporate financial report.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi – vii

 

CHAPTER ONE

  • Background of the study 1
  • Statement of the problem 2
  • Research question 2 – 3
  • Hypotheses of the study 3
  • The objective of the study 3
  • The scope of the study 4
  • Limitation of the study 4
  • The significance of the study 4
  • Definition of terms 5

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Introduction                                                                                                    6

2.1       Historical backgrounds                                                                                   6 – 7

2.2       Current literature reviews                                                                               8

2.2.1    Financial reporting                                                                                          8 – 9

2.2.2    Accounting standard                                                                                      9

2.2.3    The Nigeria accounting standard board (NASB)                                           9 – 10

2.2.4    Statement of accounting standard (SAS)                                                       10 -11

2.2.5    Legal status of accounting standard                                                               11 – 12

2.2.6    Shortcoming of financial reporting in Nigeria                                                12

2.2.7    Criticisms/lapses of accounting standard (SAS)                                             12

CHAPTER THREE

3.0       Research methodology                                                                                   13

3.1       Research design                                                                                              13

3.2       Area of the study                                                                                            13

3.3       Population of the study                                                                                  13 -14

3.4       Sample and sampling procedure                                                                     14

3.5       Instrument of data collection                                                                          14 – 15

3.6       Method of data collection                                                                              15

3.7       Method of data analysis.                                                                                15 – 17

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0       Introduction                                                                                                    18

4.1       presentation and analysis of data                                                                    18

4.1.1    Respondent characteristics                                                                             18 – 20

4.1.2    Open ended and two way question                                                                20 – 22

4.1.3    Analysis / test of hypothesis                                                                           22 – 23

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  

5.1       Introduction                                                                                                    25

5.2       Summary                                                                                                         25

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                      26

5.4       recommendations                                                                                            26 – 27

References                                                                                                      28

Appendix I                                                                                                      29

Appendix II                                                                                                    30

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

In recent time, the field of accounting at large has witnessed a contrast between two things: accounting theory and accounting practice.

Accounting theory may be describe a logical reasoning in the form of a set of board principle that provide a general frame of references by which accounting practice can be evaluated and that guide the development of new practice and procedures. It has its most important goal, the provision of a coherent set of logical principle that forms the general frame of reference or the evaluation and the development of sound accounting practices.

Furthermore, its primary test lies in its ability to explain or predict a pass current event, and verification of the prediction or explanation serve as, at least, a partial test of ability of the theory to predict future vent and condition. All theories are subjected to modification or abandonment with the development of new theories that permit better predictions. The general notion that “what goes up must come down drastically modified when objects were shot into space never to return, although the refined theories of gravitational pull had long before predicted such an event,.

Accounting practice, on the other hand, encompasses all activities undertaken by professional accountants with a network of conventions and guidelines and procedures for the purpose of preparing, presenting and providing financial information that depict a fair and reasonable disclosure of the financial affairs of the respective organization, enterprises and firm to which belong. This aspect of accounting has continued to evolve on response to changing accounting techniques and concepts.

New accounting practices have been necessary ton keep pace with changing economic institutions and relationship and the changing objectives of accounting practice and procedure about with respect to the provision, presentation and reporting of financial information relating to several reporting enterprises. However, Accounting theory is closely related to accounting practice, whether it is an evaluation practice and it effects, or an explanation of practice, or the development of a framework for the audience of change in accounting practice and adoption to new environments. It becomes very clear there, from the above, that accounting theory serves as a guide and relator for accounting practice.

This interdependence between theory and practice is what informed the present part of accounting theory, corporate financial reporting is a by. Product of practice. In view of the fact that most businesses today are operated in the form limited liability companies which are owned by shareholders and managed by director appointed by such shareholders, coupled with the consideration that the last decades are continued to witness a resolute drive towards privatization, this research work will focus mainly on the privates sector of the Nigerian economy.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

A research problem of the type of being investigated in this study is normally recognized when a doubt is raised, difficulty is created or dissatisfaction occurs and a solution imperative. With respect to the study, the statement of the problem of investigation is here under outlined paragraph by paragraph.

Limited scope of coverage and the inadequacy of statements of accounting standard (S.A.S) in the viz – a viz the varying kinds, nature, types and diversity of business operation existing within the Nigerian private sector where such standards are viewed from perspective of the mixed economic system as well as the speed of the industries in the economy.

Failure to disclose relevant information in the financial statement or report for reason of misconnect on the part of the providers and initiators of financial information, faithfully representing the underlying commercial activity of an enterprises and necessary departure from accounting standards in order to present a true and fair view.

 

1.3       Research Question

In the view of the problem enumerated in the statement of the problem section, the following question the following question will be considered

  1. how adequate is the scope of coverage offered by statement of accounting standard in view of the diversity of business operation in the Nigeria private sector?
  2. To what extent are department form S.A.S necessary for corporate financial report to give a true and fair view?
  • Can application of accounting standards ensure that the accounting information provided In the corporate report faithfully present the underlying commercial activity of the activity of the reporting enterprises?
  1. Does compliance with statement of accounting standard (S.A.S) help to ensure that the financial statement give a true and fair view?
  2. Does the (N.A.S.B) have any legal musce to enforce compliance with statement of accounting standards (S.A.S)

 

1.4       Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypotheses have been formulated for the testing o n this research work in order to draw a logical conclusion from the results.

  1. Null hypothesis (ho): in the view of the diversity of business operation in the Nigerian private sector the scope of coverage offered by statement of accounting standards (S.A.S) in adequate

Alternate hypotheses (hi): in the view of the diversity of business operation in the Nigerian private sector, the scope of covariate offered by S.A.S is adequate

  1. Ho: Departures form S.A.S is not necessary for the corporation financial report to give a true and fair view

iii.        Hi:       Departures form S.A.S is necessary for the corporate financial report to give a true and fair view.

 

1.5       Objectives of the Study

The specific aims of this study are also as follows!

  1. finding solution to the problem outlined in the statement of problem outlined the statement of problem
  2. to educate and inform the user of financial reports so that they would be in a better position to appreciate the effect of accounting standard on the preparation of cooperate financial reports.
  • To determine the adequacy of the scope of coverage offered by accounting standard (S.A.S) in the view of the diversity for business operation Land the ever – increasing demand of users of financial information.

1.6       Scope of the Study

The nature of this study entails ascertainment of the effects and impact accounting standard on the quantity relevance and reliability of corporate financial reports produced for user by various reporting enterprises in Nigeria.

 

1.7       Limitation of the Study

This research work will be limited in scope to the private sector in general and not to the public sector, no particular organization will be studied rather, the study will spam a time range of between 1990 and 2003 while covering specifically the geographical are of lagos.

 

1.8       The Significance of the Study

This study intent and purpose will be of immense significance at various user of corporate financial reports  or financial statements, prepare and provider of financial of financial statement, prepare and provider of financial information of firms practicing professional accountants, the standard setting body, auditing firm engaged in the auditing of reporting enterprises, student and lecturer accounting in tertiary institutions, accounting bodies and institutes of chattered accountant of Nigeria (ICAN).

On the part of user of accounting information, the study will:

  1. Enable them to know the extent of reliance that can place on the information supplied in the financial report of the reporting enterprises in which they have as stake.
  2. Enlighten them about the degree of usefulness of the corporate reports a means of carrying out effective intra, inter, and industry comparison  with the respect to other group of beneficiaries of this study, the following are worthy of note.
  3. The providers and preparer of financial information contained in the corporate report will be known the extent of disclosure demanded of them.
  4. The standard setting bloody will become better information about the lapses of issued standards and thereby be able to improve on or reviews the standard more effectively.