Health threats in a learning environment can jeopardize the entire effort of teaching and learning. One of such health threats is the presence of hazardous gaseous elements within the interior either as a result of learning processes or from the external environment. Combustion is one of the basic process that is employed in the learning and teaching in the laboratory that leads to the release of some gaseous pollutants that are hazardous. This research assessed the influence of combustion generated pollutants on the indoor air quality of selected laboratories in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, with a view of: estimating the amount of combustion pollutant generated; assess the impact of this pollutant on the indoor air as well as recommend measure to be adopted to improve the indoor air quality of the environment. It was effected, by means of literature review and field survey entailing the use of an IMR 1400C gas analyzer, a well structured questionnaire and a checklist. Combustion pollutants were measured and the response from the questionnaire analyzed using computer software (SPSS). From the result of the pollutant measured, it is established that CO during combustion exceeded the ASHREA 62 and NAAQS limit of 9ppm reaching up to 45ppm at some points; also oxygen was observed to be at a critical level of 20.9% and at some point falling below the limit to20.4%. Similarly, it was established that fatigue is the most prominent symptom of poor indoor air quality during combustion among other symptoms like; sinus congestion, headache and sneezing. It was also established that combustion is a major contributor to poor indoor air quality in laborites especially in the absence of functional fume hoods, congestion in laboratories and inadequate ventilation system. Hence, It is recommended that; fume hoods should be well maintained for functionality and installed where it does not exist like the ‘chemistry lab I’, provision of adequate ventilation systems in the laboratories and the construction of new laboratories to accommodate the student enrolled without congestion in the laboratories during combustion.

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                       PAGE NO.


Table 2.1: Carboxyhemoglobin levels and related health effects………………………. 24


Table 2.2: Standards on the use of Fume hoods ……………………………..………….49


Table 2.3 Standards for air recirculation in the laboratory …………………………….. 50


Table 3.1: Technical Data of IMR 1400 Gas Analyzer…………………………..…….. 55


Table 3.2: Number of Sampling Point in the Laboratory for the Pollutants      Measurement




Table 4.1: Result of the Combustion Pollutant Measurement in Chemistry Lab I along with ASHREA Requirement and NAAQS standard…..………….……..….63


Table 4.2 Result of the Combustion Pollutant Measurement SBRS LAB II along with ASHREA Requirement and NAAQS standard …………………….………64


Table 4.3 Result of the Combustion Pollutant Measurement IN SBRS LAB  III along with ASHREA Requirement and NAAQS standard ………………………. 65


Table 4.4 Result of the Combustion Pollutant Measurement IN CHEMISTRY MULTI-PURPOSE LAB along with ASHREA Requirement and NAAQS standard




Table 4.5 Result of the Combustion Pollutant Measurement PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY LAB Along With ASHREA Requirement and NAAQS Standard ………… 67


Table 4.6: Result of the Combustion Pollutant Measurement CHEMISTRY MASTERS STUDENT LAB Along With ASHREA Requirement and NAAQS Standard


………………………………………………………………………………. 68



Table 4.7: Questionnaire administered ………………….……………………………… 69








Table 4.8: Respondents Profile …………..……….…………….…………….……….70



Table 4.9: Frequency of Laboratory Use ………………………..…..…..………….. 71


Table 4.10: Combustion, Heat Source and the Presence of Fume Hood In Laboratories


………………………………………………………………………………   72


Table 4.11: Combustion and Ventilation in Laboratories     ……………………………. 73


Table 4.12: Ranking Of the Health Symptoms of Poor Indoor Air Quality ……..….… 74


Table 4.13: Ranking of the Causes of Poor Indoor Air Quality    ……….……….…….. 75


Table 4.14: Ranking of the Remedy to the Poor Indoor Air Quality ………….……. 76


Table 4.15: Result of the Checklist Survey ……………………………………………..78














































APPENDIX I – Questionnaire …………………………….………89
APPENDIX II- Checklist ………………………………………..95
APPENDIX III- Experimental Record Sheet ……………………..97
APPENDIX IV – Plates of Research Area ……………………..…98


























































LIST OF PLATES                                                                                                                         PAGE NO.


Fig 1: Chemistry Lab I ………………………………………………………………… 96


Fig 2: SBRS Lab II………………………………………………………………………96


Fig 3: SBRS Lab III    ……………………………………………………………………96


Fig4: Chemistry Multi Purpose Lab ….…………………………………………………96


FIG 5: Physical Chemistry Laboratory….………………………………………………..97


Fig 6: Masters Students Lab …..….……………………………………………………..97


Fig 7: Students Working In Group ……………………………………………….………97


Fig 8: Lab Prepared Before Practical ….………………………………………….……..97


Fig 9 : Student Taking A Pre-Lab Class ….……………………………………………..98


Fig 10: A Fume Hood ……………………………………………………………………98


Fig 11: A Water Bath Alternative Heater ….………………………………………..…..98


Fig: 12 IMR 1400C Gas Analyzer Calibrating ….…….……………………………..…..98


Fig13: taking readings before practical ….…………………………………………..…..99


Fig 14: taking reading during practical ….………………………………………………..99


Fig 15: Taking Readings after a Concluded Practical ….………………………………..99


Fig16: Over-Crowded Student during Practical ….………………………………….…..99



























ANSI – American National Standard Institute


ASHRAE –American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers COSHH- Control of Substance Hazardous To Health Regulations CPSC- Costumer Product Safety Commission


EPA- Environmental Protection Agency


HVAC – Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning System IAQ- Indoor Air Quality


MMWR- Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report NAAQS- National ambient Air Quality Standard NFPA- National Fire Protection Association NHMRC- National Health and Medical Research Council SBRS- School of Basic and Remedial Studies SPSS- Statistical Package for Social Sciences


WHO- World Health Organization







































Interests in the role of air quality in health and disease date back to antiquity. Hippocrates in his treatise on “Airs, water and places” drew attention to the impact of polluted air, among other transmission media, on disease burden. For centuries, the emphasis on pollution associated air problems was mainly placed on outdoor air; concerns about indoor air quality are fairly recent in comparison (David, 2010).


In the United Kingdom, indoor air quality awareness, as cited by Leslie (2000), was stimulated by the introduction of the Clean Air Act of 1956. Indoor air quality is influenced by factors such as building materials, paints, ventilation system, heating system, carpeting, fabrics, volatile cleaning fluids, solvents, cooking, use of fossil fuel, personal care products, household pets etc., all of which contribute to the mix of biological and chemical aerosols in the air Outdoor air source also contribute to the indoor air milieu (Olopade, 2010).


The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) (2009), defines indoor air as air within a building occupied for at least one hour by people of varying states of health. This can include the office, classroom, transport facility, shopping centre, hospital and home. Indoor air quality can be defined as the totality of attributes of indoor air that affect a person’s health and well being.


Bioaerosols could be bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, protozoa, house dust mites, scales from shed human skin, pets and human. The growth and dispersion of the microbial component is enhanced by the warm microclimate obtained in efficiently warmed







homes, offices and schools. Air-conditioning and ventilation systems can serve as growth media for bacteria, viruses and moulds, as well as recycling module for dust, fibers, and allergens (David, 2010).


Indoor air pollution refers to chemical, biological and physical contaminations of indoor air. (NHMRC, 2009). It may result in adverse health effect. In developing countries like Nigeria, the main source of indoor air pollution is biomass (e.g wood, agricultural products) which contains suspended particulate matter like nitrogen oxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO) formaldehyde and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However in industrialized countries, in addition to NO2, CO and formaldehyde, radon, asbestos, mercury, human-made mineral fibers, volatile organic compounds, allergens, tobacco smoke, bacteria and viruses are the main contributors to indoor air pollution. (David, 2010).


In the last several years, a growing body of scientific evidence has indicated that the air within homes and other buildings can be more seriously polluted than the outdoor air in even the largest and most industrialized cities. Other research indicates that people spend approximately 90 percent of their time indoors. Thus, for many people, the risks to health may be greater due to exposure to air pollution indoors than outdoors (Hodgson, et al. 1986). Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later. Immediate effects may show up after a single exposure or repeated exposures. These include irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, headaches, dizziness, and fatigue. Such immediate effects are usually short-term and treatable. Sometimes the treatment is simply eliminating the person’s exposure to the source of the pollution, if it can be identified. Symptoms of some diseases, including asthma,








hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and humidifier fever, may also show up soon after exposure to some indoor air pollutants.


The likelihood of immediate reactions to indoor air pollutants depends on several factors. Age and preexisting medical conditions are two important influences. In other cases, whether a person reacts to a pollutant depends on individual sensitivity, which varies tremendously from person to person. Some people can become sensitized to biological pollutants after repeated exposures, and it appears that some people can become sensitized to chemical pollutants as well.


The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution is responsible for roughly 1.6 million deaths each year, from acute lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and other diseases. Indoor pollution from biomass contributes to about 2.6 percent of the global burden of disease, actually kills more people every year than HIV and maybe even malaria, and yet nobody knows about it. Thus, “if we can accomplish bringing sensitive or pay attention to this problem, and use it to influence policy and help people who are poor and would otherwise have no opportunity to have more efficient stoves, it will be very delighteful.” (Olopade, 2009).


The first-ever country-by-country estimates of the burden of disease due to indoor air pollution highlight the heavy toll solid fuel use takes on the health and well-being of people around the world. The countries most affected are Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo and Uganda. In 11 countries — Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh,








Burkina Faso, China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, Pakistan and the United Republic of Tanzania — indoor air pollution is to blame for a total of 1.2 million deaths a year. Globally, reliance on solid fuels is one of the 10 most important threats to public health (Gold, 1992).


In an academic environment, laboratories happen to be a major place where combustion activities are mostly carried out usually in carrying out experiments. According to the Merriam-Webster, a laboratory was defined as „a room or building equipped for scientific research, or teaching, or for the manufacture of drugs and chemicals‟. From the definition it can be established that combustion is one of the basic process in a laboratory. Thus the question now is: „how save is the indoor air quality of such laboratories owing to the activities carried out in them?





Exposure to indoor air pollution from solid fuels has been linked to many diseases, the health threat posed by this fuel sources and biomass is generated mostly when they are subjected to combustion. (Olopade, 2009). Combustion activities in the laboratory produce gases such as; CO, CO2 NO2, and NO, which are poisonous to human health. The maximum permissible concentration levels of the gases are stated in ASHRAE Standard 62 and there are no records of existing empirical studies on the actual concentration levels in the laboratories under study. The study therefore, seeks to establish the presence and concentration levels of the pollutants in the laboratories due to combustion activities. In line with this, the following research questions are formulated.









  1. What is the HVAC status of the laboratories?


  1. Do combustion pollutants exist in the indoor air during combustion in the laboratories and in what quantity?


  • Do the combustion pollutant exist in quantities that exceed limits prescribed by Standards (ASHRAE and NAAQS), for a healthy working Indoor Air Quality?


The influence of the existence of combustion pollutants on the indoor air quality?




This project is carried out to know the effects of salt water on concrete. Salt water has salinity of about 3.5%. in that, about 78% is sodium chloride and 15% is chloride and sulphate of magnesium. The result gotten from the experiment being carried out shows different result from the mix design, casting, curing and crushing of different dates of each cubes. The compressive strength of each cube was also determined e.g. for the compressive strength of mix design 1.2.2:4 for both salt water and fresh water for different days such 7,14,21,28 days are “for fresh water” 26.0N/mm2, 33.1N/mm2, 3.8.4N/mm2, 4/06N/mm2 “for salt water” for different days such as 7, 14, 21, 28days which results are 25.9N/mm2, 28.3N/mm2, 36.3N/mm2, 38.9N/m. For compressive strength of Design Ratio “1:1:5:3:3” for different days such as “7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively which are “43.3N/mm2, 47.7N/mm2, 48.4N/mm2, 47.3N/mm2 for fresh water and that of salt water are as follows, 42.1N/mm2, 44.9N/mm2, 46.3N/mm2, 47.26N/mm2. For mix design ratio “1:3:3:5:8” we have their compressive strength to be 16.3N/mm2, 21.8N/mm2, 25.03N/mm2, 29.6N/mm2 for each respective days for fresh water and that of salt water to be 16.2N/mm2, 20.3N/mm2, 23.57N/mm2, 27.6N/mm2, which also helps in the plotting of the graph of compressive strength against the curing days, to determine the strength of each cube.



Title page                                                                                           i

Approval page                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

List of figures                                                                                     v

Abstract                                                                                             vi

Table of content                                                                                 vii-viii



  • INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1-4
  • Salt Water (Sea Water) – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –      4-6
  • Objective and Purpose of Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 6
  • Scope and Limitation of Study – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 7
  • Definition of Terms – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – 7-9



  • LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – – – 10-15
  • Admixtures – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 15-16
  • Quality of Water for Preparing Concrete – – – – – – – – – -16-17
  • Batching, Proportioning and Mixing of Concrete – – – – -17-19
  • Comparison of Salt Water and Fresh Water – – – – – – – -19-20
  • Cement Hydration – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – – – – 20-21
  • Workability and Shrimp of Fresh Concrete – – – – – – – – 21-24
  • Curing of Concrete – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 24-25



3.1    MATERIALS AND METHODS – – – – – – – – – – – – 26

3.2     Collection of Fresh/Tap Water Sample – – – –  – – – – – 26-27

3.3     Analysis of the Water Sample – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 27-29

3.4     Grading of Course Aggregates – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -29-30

3.5     Batching and Mixing of Samples Materials Required -30-32

3.6     Curing of Concrete Cubes – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – — 32

3.7     Determination of the Compressive Strength and Density of the Concrete   Cubes – – – – – – – – -32-33

3.8     Mix Design  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – – – – – -33-42




  • DATA PRESENTATION – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 43-47
  • Calculations — – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -47-78
  • Analysis – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 78-80



5.1    CONCLUSION – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – -81 

5.2     Recommendations – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  — – – – -82

Reference  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – — – 83









Concrete is an artificial engineering material made from a mixture of Portland cement, water, fine and course aggregates, and a small amount of air. It is the most widely used construction material in the world.

Concrete is the only major building material that can be delivered to the job site in a plastic state. this unique quality makes concrete  desirable as a building material because it can be molded to virtually any form or shape. Concrete provides a wide latitude in surface textures and colours and can be used to construct a wide variety of structures, such as highways, and streets, bridges, dams, barge buildings, airport runways, irrigation structures, breakwaters, piers and docks, sidewalks, soles and farm buildings, homes and even barges and ships.

Other desirable qualities of concrete as a building material are its strength, economy, and durability. Depending on the mixture of material used, concrete will support, in compression, 700 or more kg/sq cm (10,000 or more 1b/sq in). the ensile strength of concrete is much lower, but by using properly designed still reinforcing, structural members can be made that are as strong in tension as they are in compression. The durability of concrete is evidenced by the fact that concrete columns built by the Egyptians more than 3000 years ago are still standing.

There are however, many different types of concrete, the names of some are distinguished by the types, sizes and densities of aggregates e.g. eight weight, normal weight or heavy weight. Concrete are similar in composition to mortar, which are used to bond unit masonry.  Mortars however, are normally made with sand as a hole aggregates.

Whereas, concrete contain much larger aggregates and this usually have greater strength. As a result, concrete have a much wider range of structural application, including pavements, footings, pipes, unit majoring, walls, dams and tanks. Because ordinary concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression, it is usually prestressed or reinforced with a much stronger material, such as steel, to resort tension.

There are various methods employed for carting ordering concrete. For very small projects, sacks of prepared mixes may be purchased and mixed on the site with water, usually a drem-type, portable, mechanical mixer.

For large projects, mix ingredient are weighed separately and deposited in a stationary batch mixer or a continuous mixer. Concrete mixed or agitated in a truck is called ready mixed concrete. In general, concrete is placed and consolidation is forms by hand tamping or pudding around reinforcing steel or by spreading at or near vertical surface. Another technique vibration or mechanical pudding, which is the most satisfactory one for achieving proper consolidation.



In Nigeria, electricity consumers are often faced with the problems of inaccurate, irrational and delay in monthly billing due to the drawback in reading pattern and human errors. Thus, it is essential to have an efficient and effective system for such purposes via electronic platform with consideration to proximity. This project presents the design on-line electricity payment enforcement system using PHCN Ado Ekiti as a case study. This research work will be a solution system developed with Microsoft Visual Web Development IDE; being an Object Oriented Design tool from Microsoft Visual collection and Microsoft Access with SQL query for back-end database. It measures accurately the electric power consumed by residential or commercial buildings, which is more economical compared to the electromechanical devices. Individual consumer and the utility companies can directly monitor and control electric power supply billing without engaging the services of meter readers. It displays the sale rate of electrical power per unit and the consumed power per minute. It provides environment to maintain the consumer details right from connection and performance information to the management. It is an Intranet and Internet based software solution that ensures timely availability of status parameters.


Keywords: Power Billing, Electronic System, Electricity, Consumers, Database


1.0       INTRODUCTION  


The world has really turned into a global technology in all aspect of our lives. It has really made life easy and enjoyable. On the other hand, some unscrupulous elements in the society have equally used it to perpetrate some heinous crimes. Since the late 90s, many African countries have started to implement policies that will enhance the electronic retail payment systems. Following advances in electronic payment, information technology have created both the opportunity to improve the effectiveness of existing payment transactions. Advances in networked information technology, more computing power and lower computing costs are driving more and more firms toward the paperless world of electronic commerce. Before the introduction of electronic payment systems in Nigeria, bank customers devote a whole day in their effort to carry some activities in the bank. There were long queues with its attendant dissatisfaction’s. Some bank officials did not help matters since they normally attend to people they know very well or those who normally offers them some cash after each transaction. The inconveniences caused by these long queues can discourage someone to make payment.

But, in recent years banks in Nigeria has witnessed an upsurge of electronic payment instruments meant to facilitate trade and simplify payments. For many years, bankers, technology specialists, entrepreneurs, and others have advocated for the replacement of physical cash and the introduction of more flexible, efficient and cost effective retail payment solutions. Countless conferences and seminars have been held to discuss the concepts of cashless and “chequeless” society. (Bank for International Settlement, 1998)

Sanusi (2011) maintained that the cashless economy being proposed by the Central Bank of Nigeria would begin in Lagos State. He said, ‘The CBN has decided to start the cashless economy in Lagos, using Lagos as the hub, and has taken up partnership with the governor of Lagos State. ‘In a few months to come, Lagos will move swiftly into e-banking and there is also the initiative to introduce mobile banking across the country.’ The proposed mobile banking system, he said, would cut the cost of running banks by about 30 per cent.

Electronic retail payment has been designed to help individual customers and companies as well as the banks itself in eliminating or reducing some of the problems inherent in the settlement and payment process. Customers can pay their bills without having to actually move to the bank’s premises. They may also have access to their account information and even transfer money to other accounts in the comfort of their homes.

Electronic services such as online retail banking are making it possible for individuals and small institutions to take advantage of new technologies at quite reasonable costs. (Abor, 2004). In Nigeria, electronic retail payments are being continuously developed, to replace or reduce paper-based payments. Many new payment services have come into existence in recent years, most of which are based on technical innovations such as card, telephone and the Internet.



This project is carried out to design an on-line payment enforcement system in order to determine and to provide .



The primary objective of the study based on online electricity payment enforcement systems. The specific objectives are as follows:

  1. To assist consumers, businesses and service providers in Nigeria to understanding the various electronic payment alternatives.
  2. To describe and briefly analyse recent and potential future trends in electronic payments in Nigeria.
  3. To assess and explore issues of user acceptability of the current payments systems.
  4. It is also in response to the growing need in Nigeria to develop non-cash payment products and clearing systems in order to reduce the over-dependence on cash payments.





This research will concentrate on online electricity payment enforcement systems; focusing particularly on the needs of consumers. While there are many emerging types of online electricity payment enforcement systems, special emphasis will be given to payment methods that utilize the services of organization. Such schemes include ATMs, the Internet, mobile phone, debit and debit cards, etc.

It is not possible to capture all the important details about an entire payment application; however, an insight into a selection of these payment systems can be valuable in helping people understand different payment systems in relation to ones that they may already be familiar with. This research work also limits its focus to schemes available in Nigeria.



The development of this work was not an easy task, the areas of sourcing for information and data collection was a challenging one. The materials apart from the one sourced from the internet were not easy as most information were journals that requires subscriptions in order to have access to it.

Also gaining access and interviewing of various heads of their staff was not an easy one. Again lack of sufficient funds to conduct an extensive study was another handicap. The financial implication as this project is concerned gulped money.




Analysis: Breaking a problem into successively manageable parts for individual study.

Attribute: A data item that characterize an object

Data flow: Movement of data in a system from a point of origin to specific destination indicated by a line and arrow

Design: Process of developing the technical and operational specification of a candidate system for implements.

Flow Chart: A graphical picture of the logical steps and sequence involved in a procedure or a program against time.

Implementation: In system development-phase that focuses on user training, site preparation and file conversion for installing a candidate system.

Operation System: In database – machine based software that facilitates the availability of information or reports through the DBMS.

Password: Identity authenticators a key that allow access to a program system a procedure.

System: A regular or orderly arrangements of components or parts in a connected and interrelated series or whole a group of components necessary to some operation.

System Design: Detailed concentration on the technical and other specification that will make the new system operational.

System Testing: Testing the whole system by the user after major programs and subsystem has been tested.





As it is know that no business can operate in a vacuum or in isolation, organization have to interact with its environment and this environment can be classified as internal and external environment, therefore under external environment business organization are concerned with social /culture, believe religion, customer expectation and degree of the issue of social responsibility.

Corporate social responsibility is a concept that seeks to promote the overall welfare of the society by focusing on the attention of business organization on society obligation and social objectives. More so, social responsibility as one would say is a two way process in the sense that is does not have impact on the profitability of an organization.

It is the benefit of many executive that it is the right psychological meaning one association with their company employees will want work, there are people that will be favourably predisposed towards this of an organization the long term.


The issue of the social responsibility has become a problem to some organization. This believes that being socially responsible is threat to the existence of the organization.

This organization lay emphasis on the relationship between corporate social responsibility and profitability of the organization. This corporate social responsibility of the organization. This corporate social responsibility is a colossal waste of share holder’s funds.

Also that social responsibility has nothing to do with the existence of an organization and finally, the organization lack knowledge on the benefit of corporate social responsibility.


The aim and objective of the study are: –

  1. To look at the effect or impact of social responsibility on the profitability of the organization.
  2. To study the various ways by which the company can be socially responsible.
  3. To look at the reaction of the environment on the issue of social responsibility of a company.
  4. To consider the effect of being socially responsibility on the company profitability.
  5. To consider the effect of corporate social responsibility on the entire organization


  1. Does social responsibility increase the growth and quality of the organization?

2. To what extent can social responsibility assist International Breweries Ilesa in improving the level of operation?



The topic for this project was visualized by me and scrutinized, criticized and then modified within the effort of my supervisor Mrs. Olaoye. This project principally focuses on the effect of market segmentation on sales volume in a manufacturing industry with reference to Epee industries Plc Lagos. It helps an organization or government to segment their market who smaller divisions so as to service the consumers effecting, because the customer are too many with different characteristics of buying behaviour or requirements. Market can be segmented on geographic, demographic, psychographics and other behaviouristic variable. To be ultimately useful the segment should be measurable accessible and substantial. The source of data used for this research work are primary and secondary data. Primary source of data studies, the use of question was employed for collecting primary data, information were gathered from selected staff using structured and unstructured questionnaire so as information while secondary source of data include, consultation of textbooks, magazine dictionary and various books relating to market segmentation.  





The effect of market segmentation on the sale volume manufacturing industry is concerned with theory and practice of dividing a market into definable groups, usually to improve marketing performance, frequently different segments of a market have individual behavioural patterns and require a different approaches for success to be achieved. And the firm because this has implication on the firm profit, which is the firm principal objective of running a firm.

Actually before anything could be said on market segmentation, the term market segmentation need to be defined.

Kolter and Arm-Strong (1996) define market segmentation as a process of dividing a market into distinct group of buyers on the basis of needs characteristics or behaviour who might require separate product or marketing mix.

This is so, because market consist of many types of customers, products, needs and the market has to determine which segments offer the best opportunity for achieving company objectives.

Leader (1995) define market segmentation the process of dividing a market into the homogeneous segment that collectively constitute the market that to being segmented. This is due to the fact that consumers may buy different goods according to their sex, ages, group, income, occupation or even geographic location. It should therefore be evident that marketing organization must attempt to develop or adopt product to satisfy specific must attempt to develop or adapt product to satisfy specific group of consumers.

Modern defines market segmentation vital issue in the study of marketing which has to within the analysis of a particular total market demand to its consentient parts, so that of buyer can be differentiated both as a marketing tool and as a basic input to market and business planning.

The customers are too numerous widely scattered and heterogeneous in their buying requirement i.e. buying behaviour. This is why the marketer has the responsibilities segment its market into smaller division, so as serve the customer effectively.

Finally marketing managers must segment their market for efficient utilization of the limited resources and to facilitate identification of the golden opportunity abounding in the market to boost the sales volume of the organization.



The company (Unilever Nigeria Plc) has been using geographical segmentation method. Their marketing segment North, East West and Lagos. Through each segment is identified with a particular product, each one of them buys (in small proportion) products meant for other segments.

The cost of maintaining each segment differs and the returns (sales) from each market also differ.

There are a lot of questions to be asked when carrying out the process.

  • Can market segmentation affect a sales volume
  • How is market segmentation related to profit maximization?
  • Can a manufacturing company do without market segmentation?

These and other questions will be examined with a view to providing appropriate answer.



The main objectives of this study are:

  • To enable the company to set standard sales target for each market segment.
  • To enable the company top evacuate them mission and cost incurred on the each segment.
  • To contribute significantly to the not-profit generated by the concerned company.
  • To examine the conditions necessary before segmenting a market.
  • After the completion of the study, it may equally assist the concerned company to make necessary correction where there are tactical lapses, and lastly to examine the relationship between market segmentation and sales volume in a manufacturing organization.



A scientific research must have research questions. The research questions give will order and direction to the research study as a whole. The research questions are regarded as a whole. The research questions are regarded as an expansion of the research problem. The followings are question drawn.

  1. Has the market segmentation method increased sales volume of the company?
  2. Has market efforts helped in stimulating more sales in the market segments?

iii.        Is there any relationship between market segmentation and sales volume?



The hypothesis to be used as tools for this research work are the alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis are started as follows:

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between market segmentation and increased in sales volume of the company.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between market segmentation and increased in sales volumes of the company.

Ho:      There is no significant relationship between market and profit making ability of the company.

Hi:       There is significant relationship between market segmentation and profit making ability of the company.



–           The significant of the study is to undergo a article examination of the impact of market segmentation or sale volume and method used in the selection of market segment with the hope of determining the contribution from each segment and to know whether the we of other marketing efforts in each segment will be profitable.

–           The findings of this research work will be useful to the organization under study and other similar organization.

–           It will also be helpful to future researches of same topic within and the state.



This research work focuses the impact of market segmentation on sales volume in manufacturing industries with more emphasis on geographical method of organization. The study will also cover the types of market, definition of segmentation method of the segmenting industrial and consumer markets etc. the research is conducted in Epee industrial Lagos.



Packaging is an integral part of the goods supply chain. It helps to protects goods from damage, allows efficient distribution, informs the consumer and helps to promote goods in a competitive market place. The main objective of the study was to determine packaging as a tool to boost sales volume in manufacturing industry. The subsidiary objectives include to determine whether packaging ensures the safety and quality of products – from manufacture through to storage, distribution and consumption, whether packaging contributes to product appeal, provides convenience and communicates information e.g. on nutrition and serving instructions. The research has shown that consumers are willing to pay a little more for the appearance and prestige of better packaging as a result of the rise in consumer affluence. In addition, the growth of discount stores, departmental stores and supermarkets has meant that the package must now perform many of the promotional functions. This means that it must attract attention, suggest something desirable inside it in the mind of the consumer and make an overall favorable impression. It was recommended that management should pay more attention to the promotional aspects of good packaging in developing specific packaging policies.




Packaging as tool to boost sale volume in manufacturing industries. The introduction of packaging as tool to boot sales volume cannot be over emphasized for the fact that it is a way of developing the nation economy. In this project, packaging in a business organization will be dealt with.

In this study, packaging is used for general operation of putting goods into container for shipment and storage or it can be taken to means as act of placing production in a special packing before getting to the general public.

Packaging is the general activities that involving designing and producing of products or goods particularly those pass into domestic and international market.

Prior to the advent of packaging a generalization of ideas about the product have to come in by producer after which the idea may be identified ideas of product which planning will be based upon selection of the best alternative idea screening will be take place as a result the best (alternative) with be chosen fro the exercise.

Sometimes, it is done by immediate environment factors for instance, the employer or a specific set of people have to pass their comment as to whether the product is alright I term of size, shape, colour and utility after which the product will be taking to the entire public through packaging.

Packaging is the most important aspect in the incoming or outgoing of product it serves some important purpose of good consumers as well as producer in the boost sales volume at production question such as protection trade appeal customer conveniences, image coordination at the product and as a product utility factors. Nonetheless one of the most significant sales influential is packaging design. It has been used as a crucial marketing tool in order to establish a proper product image and positioning induce consumers to try the goods and create the first impression of the product that generally affect the incremental sales. Therefore, it can be said that well designed packaging can increase product sales volume and profit



Since it has been discovered that poor packaging in a manufacturing industries and it has also been discovered that, the prevailing style used in packaging the product is a result of packaging style. Therefore, the problem under achievement of manufacturing industries is effectiveness. The study will therefore examine which of the classical packaging styles can be more effective in an manufacturing industries So that the product could be improved in market.



Objective of the study is that researchers are of view that finding of this work will provide various method or approaches of packaging that would be used in any manufacturing industries for boost sales volume of their products.

Considering the economy of industry where productions are in abundant supply, for the produces to be in operational existence, there must be adequate packaging for product so that consumers can easily identify once product in the market place. Also it has becoming necessary to engaged in special activities in boost of sales volume in manufacturing industries and there are time when people make use of effective packaging, its impact have being objective in the boost of sales volume of most manufacturing industries.



The main importance of this work is to examine the role played by packaging as a tool to boost sales volume in contributing to the increase in sales level and establishing good image in a form using UNILEVER NIGERIA PLC Apapa Lagos as a case study.

The finding of this research will be of utmost importance to other researchers, students alike and business organizer who will like to conduct a research on a similar topic in business of marketing areas



The entire work of this researcher study will concentrate on packaging as a tool for boost sales volume in manufacturing industries UNILEVER Nigeria Plc, Agbara Industrial Estate Lagos. The research work would be restricted to one of their companies scattered all over the country.



Volume is broad in perspective packaging management encompass its product will review all issue related to packaging management functions

The finding the course of this project consists of five chapters and was faces with the problem of data collection and information necessary for this study due to official protocol.

Some data introduction required are not given because they were regarded as special data compounding the releasing information since they were as well very careful when they deals with outsider who they felt price into affairs.

All the same as systematic approach, friend posture and other made securing of interview possible but not without inches and transformation here and there.

Beside, to the researcher’s problem was that the faced with abandon lecturer many times for the purpose of this study.



The following are to be answered

  1. Are you always satisfied with the company packaging
  2. Will packaging boost your moral and patronage of the company’s product?
  3. Do workers find it easy to channel your complaint to the management?
  4. Does packaging as tool increase sale volume?



The following research hypotheses were used for the study are:

Ho:      Packaging has no significant relationship with sales volume in manufacturing industries.

Hi:       Packaging has significant relation with sales volumes in manufacturing industries


Ho:      Packaging formulation is not significantly related to all departments in the organization.

Hi:       Packaging formulation is significantly related to all departments in the organization.



SALES: this is act of having the product produced by the producer disposed to the final and ultimate consumer at a profit or it is a process of changing the producers production with a profit.

BOOST: this is a marketing strategy aim at communication to the largest consumer in the market, that the right product is available at the right place. It include, advertising sales promotion selling, public relation.

PRODUCT: this is the result of process of raw material energy manpower and time.

PACKAGING: this is the ability of covering a product to prevent it from damages and also to make it attractive in the sight of consumers and which influence sales.

MARKET: this is a set of actual a potential buyer of a product.

Sales volume: is the number of sold units of sales in a certain period of times.

Domestic market: A nation’s internal market representing the mechanisms for issuing and trading securities of entities within that nation

INTERNATIONAL MARKET: is involves the firm in making one or more marketing mix decision across national boundaries. Shipment is the quality of goods shipped, consignment, and coat and oil shipment.

CONTAINER: refer to items used to contain stove and transport product.

DESIGN: is a purposeful, systematic and creative activity.

DUAL OR MULTIPLE CHAMBER CONTAINERS are designed to allow for the co-packaging of more than one product which brought together create one integrated final product

SHELF STABLE: refers to those products that do not require refrigeration or freezing for safety

RESPONDENT: it is someone that has taken part in some type of study or research be it answer a questionnaire or it could be an interview

SUPPLY CHAIN: is a system of organization, people, technology, activities, information and resources involved in moving a product from supplier to consumer.

PRIMARY PACKAGING: is the material the first envelops the product and holds it.

SECONDARY PACKAGING: is out outside the primary packaging perhaps used to group primary packages together.



The research work is to look at how the organizational staff development programme on employees job satisfaction with reference to Unilever NigeriaPlc, Ikeja Lagos Nigeria. The research work is divided into five chapters. Chapter one deals with introduction to topic that is, background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study, historical background of the case study (Unilever Nigeria Plc) and definition of terms. Chapter two focuses on the review of related literature, the review of many authors also included in this chapter on method of packing, significant and function that packaging service in boosting the volume of manufacturing industries. Chapter three based on research methodology design and sources of data, collection, population sample, preparation of research instrument and method of statistical analysis. Chapter four has to do with data presentation and analysis testing of hypothesis and interpretation of findings. Chapter five deals with summary of findings, discussion, conclusion, recommendation and suggestion for further studies.




With the rapid growth of civilization and technological development, different activities are carried out by different organizations. Management / Directors with the help of their staffs i.e. managers, secretaries, supervisors, clerical officers, cleaners and messengers work as a team to achieve management objective. The success of this organization depend largely on the effectiveness of the input and quality of jobs and performance of the staff employed to carryout the activities of this business and this will reflect on the type of morale that the organization gives to the employees.

Organization and employers of labours do not recruit staff who are not capable of doing things independently but people who can plan and use their experience and skills meaningfully in their areas of specialization. Special attention is paid to job performance, level of training and satisfaction of staff on their job when we talk of employees and organization will suffers so, it has been suggested that staff development should be a continuous process, either in the form of short course, in service training that will keep the employee abreast of the day to day change in office method and procedure.

Training is continuous an on-going process in an organization as it will enable us to acquire skill, the technical know how, adaptability and self assurance, loyalty and conscientiousness and techniques that not only enable the employees to perform exceptionally well but also will help to improve on his/her job performance and job satisfaction. If employees are properly trained to cope with the demand of their job, it will be more rewarding for the organization and the individual employees.



The study is to investigate the impact of training on job performance of staff. This study will focus attention on the extent to which training is being organized in the company and its effect on employees especially in relation to their job performance.




The main objective of the study is to find out through empirical analysis “The impact of organizational staff development programme on employees job satisfaction” other job of this research include: –

  • To suggest ways of facilitating proper training and re-training for the workers.
  • To suggest way to job satisfaction for all the employees in an organization.
  • To suggest ways of enhancing productivity through employees job satisfaction.



Nearly, every organization want to make greater productivity and profitability through employees efficiency and effectiveness. In order to make high productivity and profitability, employee job satisfaction and level of productivity.

The findings of this research work will be useful to management and staff of Unilever Nigeria plc, and future researchers on a similar topic.



This research will cover the three departments in the company i.e. training centre, personnel department and the factory. The scope of the study focuses on the impact of organizational staff using the Unilever Nigeria Plc as the case study. Its will be restricted to only three departments in the company i.e. the training center / per personnel department and the factory.



As in any research work, the research work faces diversity of problems. The researcher encountered some obstacles during the course of this research. The major problems are: –



The purpose of this project is to examine effort of manpower planning on organization efficiency. I use sterling product Nigeria plc Ilupeju Lagos as a case study in order to be able to discuss with the union, employees and management, how they have been able to have greater efficiency in the organization. In order to acquire knowledge about the topic, many textbooks, written by eminent author in the field of manpower planning were reviewed. The use of questionnaire was also employed to gather all the data needed the workers. The data were interpreted and analyzed on different tables. The chi-square test was used to analyzed the quest relating specifically to the working hypothesis. This was on 50% level of significance. In considering the overall result of the data analysis, I was abler to bring out the impact of manpower planning on the organizational productivity and efficiency. Finally, I am profoundly grateful to authors of these books, journals and write up I consulted above all big thank to you all for you support and understanding. May Almighty God be with you all and guide you all right (Amen).    





Manpower planning is connected with acquisition utilization development and maintenance of human resources.

Twain (1977) says that “every body is talking about it or they are not doing very, perhaps, everyone talks about human resources planning that, it is a step in the right direction, but must people do not assume the quality effort. Though, manpower planning is relatively new in the field of personnel management since twenty-five to thirty year age, not must has been written about the need for planning human resources in an organization”

However, it will appropriate to examine the strength and weakness of human resource this will in turn take it easier to have good plans, and programme that will be prepared to manpower planning in the management circle has helped organization in seeking a means of maintaining and improving their ability to achieve their corporate image and objective be developing strategy which are designed to increase the present and future contribution of manpower towards the survival of the organization. To this end, it is appear that manpower planning must be over all strategic planning of an organization it must be integrated with the business objective for organization effectiveness to be achieved.

If an organization planned for her sales, finance and production and disregard the human resources plan. It will find out that all other functional area planned for, will badly be implemented.

Nwanchuku (1987) has noted that on of the problem confronting management in an organization is the marching of people with jobs they have suited what makes an organization to be a successful one is the ability to forecast the future occurrence. Any organization that cannot have effective manpower planning will always be on risk side. More, if expensed and skilled people are few, it is therefore necessary to plan a head before the problem knocks on our door. Manpower planning is necessary because it given upper management a better view of the human resource dimension of business decision.

It should be noted however, that the days of unsystematic and initiate manpower management are drawing closely. Hence, if the manpower management is not adequately acquire and utilized, it will be worse than unplanned, because of the multiple effects, it will have on all other functional area. Manpower planning covers more than simple planning the future requirement. But it also taken into consideration the current level of skills in an organization and the levels, discharge or other reason.



There are many problem that organization undergo and some of these problems have been solved through “manpower planning and its effect on organization efficiency” in this research work of these problems have been solved. The research examined the method of preventing under-staffing and also how to identify the course of labour turnover with the manpower planning and its effect on organization efficiency organizations were able to save problems that may arises.

Also, through manpower planning, we are able to understand that human resources into good and services that exist or can be created.

There resources are to be changed into the final product for consumption through the effectiveness of the help people working in the organization. Furthermore, with the help of manpower planning we wearable to know and solve the problem of over staffing, employees, are fully employed in order to avoid crown-less and illness in the organization. Over working to the employees may lead to unsatisfactory and demotivate.



Below are the questions prepared to test the effective of planning and organization effectiveness.


To test whether for research be accepted or rejected, certain analysis is will be carried out, and these include:




This project is about The Impact of Cooperative Societies on the Socio Economic Development of Rural Community. It took in to the impact of the Impact of Cooperative Societies on the Socio economic at large. The project is diverted into five (5) chapters. The first chapter deals with the introduction, problem, statement, purpose of the study, definition of term and limitations. Second chapter deals with literature review, influence of business environment and its effect. The third chapters has to do with research methodology, simple size and population size, data collection method etc. The study and finding is chapter four (4) is all about, it tries to verify it findings against the expected result. The last chapter deals with summary, conclusion; recommendations and suggestion for further studies.





Cooperative society is one of the oldest from of business organization that exist in our society. It has been in existence from the time immemorial cooperative society is from of democratic business organization meant for its members. Cooperative societies in Olawumi started with consumer cooperative aiming at providing consumer goods to its people as agreed in the cooperative by laws.

A cooperative .is an old business, it is voluntary association of people established after a period of careful study for the purpose of solving economic felt needs in the field of essential goods and services. It ism through the formation of cooperative societies that people have the opportunity to borrow money so as to finance their business like farming, supermarket, bakery, saw mill, patient and medicine store and many other business that are sited in rural area (small scale).

More so, the formation of cooperative society gives birth to cooperative offspring like cooperative press, cooperative bank, cooperative exporter limited located in almost all places of the federation including local government areas of Osun State. All the institutions mentioned above were set up to facilitate the progress, smooth running and development of numerous small scale project running in the area in Olawumi society, each cooperative halts its principal officers appointed or selected at the apex and lower levels, they include president of cooperative society union, affiliated president of the affiliated society treasurers, securities, auditors, managers and a few others.

The beneficiaries of such society include farmers, trader, pensioners, civil servants etc. All categories of people mentioned above have used the benefit derived from such to manage their own small scale business examples of Olawumi cooperative society including Itesiwaju Cicu Limited, Irewole (Ikire) Cicu Limited, Ayedade (Ifesowapo)Cicu limited etc.



Cooperative societies are faced with many problems in the country as a whole and the main problems that of ignorance. Many people in Olawumi cooperative society and Osun at large do not know much about the existence of cooperative. The worth of cooperative societies is not known to many people hence, majority of the local populace pay less attention to it. The question that comes to one’s mind went thinking about cooperatives as related to this study are: is a cooperative being faced with problems in Olawumi and Nigeria at large? If yes, are the problems facing cooperative in the country?

What are the possible solutions to the problems? Thus this research will examine the activities of cooperative societies towards the development of small scale business in the study area. To achieve this, the research will focus on impact of cooperative on the socio – economic development of a rural community in Osun state and Nigeria as a whole



The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of cooperative societies on the socio – economic development to the member as people in general and the development of the rural community (small scale) in our society. Also the study will attempt to investigate the contribution of cooperative to the survival of small scale business in the community.

More so, it will stimulate all other researchers to develop interest in the researching into the impact of cooperative movement on the socio – economic development and influence of small scale business in the study



The cooperative societies have helped socially and economically toward the development of small development of scale business in the rural communities especially in the study area. This is when people become aware of the importance of cooperative societies. This research work is significant for the following reasons.

It will aid the socio – economic development of a number of cooperative societies in the area. It will also create awareness to the people for the benefit to be derived from joining cooperative societies.