DETERMINATION OF NUTRIENT, ANTI-NUTRIENT AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PLANTAIN PEEL.

ABSTRACT

             Proximate elemental and antinutrient analysis of the plantain peel were carried out to ascertain its edibility status and inedibility status and possibility utilization for its proximate composition and the result obtained showed that it has moisture content (9.5 ±) ,protein (8.7±), ether extract (2.1±),ash content(7.2±), crude fiber(7.3±),carbohydrate(65.2±). The result of the photochemical screening shows the presence of tannin, saponins, phytates, flavoniod, and trypsin inhibitor, cyanogenic glycoside, terpeniod and alkaloids are not present. The result for antinutrient shows that it contains saponins (35.0±), tannins (22.0±), phytates (48.0±), and flavoniods (4.0±), the peel was also found to be rich in minerals like iron (12.5±), phosphorus (350.0±), calcium (250), and magnesium (25.0±). The result of this research indicates that the plantain peels have nutritional qualities that could provides the user and consumer with additional nutrient and the presence of phytochemical indicated that it is a potential sources of drug since it fight against some diseases.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                                   iv

Abstract                                                                                                                                  v

Table of content                                                                                                                      vi – vii

CHAPTER ONE                                                                 

1.1       Introduction                                                                                                                1

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       2

2.1       Description of plantain                                                                                               2

2.2       History                                                                                                                       2

2.3       Taxonomy                                                                                                                   3

2.4       Production Trends (Availably)                                                                                   3

2.5       Economic Importance                                                                                                 3

2.5.1    Plantain as Food                                                                                                         3 – 4

2.6       Plantain Nutrition                                                                                                       4

2.7       Plantain Allergies                                                                                                        4

2.8       Plantain as Fruits                                                                                                         4

2.8.1    Plantain Chips                                                                                                             4

2.8.2    Fried Plantain                                                                                                              5

2.8.3    Roasted Plantain (Boil)                                                                                               5

2.9       Uses of part other than the fruits                                                                                5

2.9.3    Plantain Leaves and Roof                                                                                           5

2.9.2    Plantain Flowers                                                                                                         5 – 6

2.9.3    Plantain Shoot                                                                                                             6

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1       Proximate Analysis                                                                                                     7

3.2       Moisture Content                                                                                                        7 – 8

3.3       Carbohydrate                                                                                                              8 – 10

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       Result and Discussion                                                                                                 11

4.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   12 – 13

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0       Conclusion                                                                                                                  14

5.1       Recommendation                                                                                                        14

References                                                                                                                  15 – 16

 

 


CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0       INTRODUCTION

            According to oxford Dictionaries online oxford university press April (2001) plantain is the common name for herbaceous plant of the genus musa. The fruit they produce is generally used for cooking in contrast to the soft, sweet banana (which is sometimes referred to as dessert banana). John well’s phonetic blog (2010).

Stephany Elsworth, an ettow writer reported that plantains must be cooked before they are edible. Mildred E. Marthis Botanical Garden website reported that bananas and plantains have been an important part of the diet of people in tropical countries for hundreds of years. There are more than 100 different names for these fruits.

In Ancients India, the Mildred E. Mathis Botanical Garden website explains that the earliest record of an edible banana type plant was discussed in the “Epics of the Pali Buddhist” code of rules in 600BC. India also recognized the horn plantain which was used since 350BC.

The population of North America was first introduced to the fruit as “banana plantain” and in the united states and Europe “banana” generally refers to that variety. The word “banana is sometimes used to describe other plantains cultivars and names may reflect local uses or characteristics of cultivars: cooking plantain banana plantain, beer banana, bocadilo plantain etc.

“Musa Species (banana and plantain)” agro forestry. Net also reported that all members of the genus musa are indigenous to the tropical regions of southeast Asia and Oceania, including the malay Archpelago (Modern Indonesia, Malaysia, Prunei and the Philippines) and Northern Australia Plantains are classified formally as musa acuminata, musa balbisiana or hybrids, depending on their genomic constitution. The old scientific name Musa Paradisiaca is no longer used. Most plantains come from the hybrid AAB and ABB cultivar groups.

Furthermore, the Mildred E. Mathis Botanical Garden website also explained that in Ancient- Trade Routes, Traders from India, Arabia, Indonesia and Persia introduced bananas and plantains to Latin America, West Africa and the Caribbean between the fifth and 15th centuries. However, unrelated plantain cultivars were found deep inside the African rain forest, leading to speculation that the plantain arrived in Africa at least 3,000 years ago.

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ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PROFILE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM APPARENTLY HEALTHY DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA (OYO STATE)

ABSTRACT

 

This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolate from apparently healthy domestic livestock viz: cow, goats and chicken from Oyo State Nigeria. E. coli was isolated using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolate were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. A total of 42 different antibiotics resistance profile were observed with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested. Generally, the E. coli isolates showed resistance rates of 93.8% to Ampicilin; 15.3% to Chloramphenicol, 52.7% to cloxacillin, 74.3% Erythromycin, 20.9% to Gentamicin, 53.8% to Penicillin, 17.7% to Streptomycin, 67.3% to Tetracyclin, 21.1% to Ceftazidine 70.7% to Cefuroxine, 20.5% to Cefixine, 28.8% to Ofloxacine, 58.6% to Augmentin, 27.2% to Nitorfurantion 27.3% to Ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed that average number of resistance phenotypes per isolate was significantly higher for cow compared with poultry. A significant public health concern observed in this study is that multi drug resistant: commensal E. coli strains may constitute a potential reservoir of resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.  

PRODUCTION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE JAM PRODUCED FROM FOUR (4) DIFFERENT TROPICAL FRUITS APPLE, PINEAPPLE, ORANGE AND BANANA

ABSTRACT

 Composite jam was produced from four different tropical fruits – pineapple, apple, orange and banana at different proportion. Four different samples were produced with the following proportion sample A 70% pineapple and 10% of banana, apple and orange. Sample B 70% banana, 10% pineapple, apple and orange. Sample C 70% apple, 10% orange, pineapple apple and banana. Sample D 70% orange. 10% pineapple, banana and apple. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis using multiple comparism method. Sample A which compare of 70% pineapple pulp was rated best in term of colour spread-ability, and General Acceptability while sample B, C and D was rated best in term of texture, taste. However statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant different among the four sample.

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAD FROM BLENDS OF WHEAT, FERMENTED AND UNFERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOUR

ABSTRACT

 The production and evaluation of bread from blends of wheat, ripe plantain and fermented plantain flour were produced. Proximate, functional, pasting and sensory analyses were carried out on them. The ripe plantain and the fermented plantain flour were blends with wheat in different proportions, 90 : 10, 80 : 20, 70 : 30, 60 : 40 and 50 : 50. From the sensory analysis carried out, ripe plantain and fermented plantain flour were generally more acceptable in the production of bread with blends of wheat flour at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratio respectively i.e. 90% of wheat and 10% of fermented plantain flour 90% of wheat and 10% of ripe plantain flour and 80% of wheat and 20% of fermented plantain flour, 80% of wheat and 20% of ripe plantain flours. And when compared with whole wheat bread there were little significant difference between them. From the proximate analysis carried out fermented plantain flour contains moisture (10%), ash (3%), crude protein (8.95%), dry matter (90%) and either extract (1%) while ripe plantain flour contains Moisture (10%), Dry matter (90%), Ash (4%), Crude fibre (1%), either extract (1%) and crude protein (9.02%). From functional analysis carried out, ripe plantain flour had the bulk density of 0.459/cm3, water holding capacity of 8.5g/g, pH value of 4.62, water absorption of 0.23g/g, solubility index of 28% and the gel strength is very strong while fermented plantain flour had the bulk density of 0.7g/cm3, water holding capacity of 7.5g/g, pH value of 4.71, water absorption of 0.2g/g, solubility index of 25% and also the gel strength of fermented plantain flour is very strong. The analysis of the bread samples revealed that the bread samples stay for four days before spoilage.

EFFECT OF MODIFICATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

ABSTRACT

Work on the effect of modification on the physical properties of tigernut starch was investigated. Starch from tigernut was isolated by wet milling process and physico-chemical properties of native and modified tigernut starches (cyperus esculetus) were analyzed. The carboxymethylated modified starch had highest amount of protein (0.45%) fibre (0.25%) and moisture content (14.96%) while natives had highest amount of fat (0.60%) ash (0.17%) starch (77.90%) and amylose 17.71%. The carbohydrate contents of native, acid modified, hydrogen peroxide and carboxymethylated modified starches were 85.27%, 84.84%, 83.74% and 83.74% respectively. The physicochemical analysis showed that native tigernut starch had the highest valve of total solid (86.60%) and PH (6.63) while hydrogen modified starch had highest amount of TTA (0.495%). The study therefore had an effect proximate and physicochemical of the starch samples.

PROXIMATE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FISH FLOUR OBTAINED FROM THREE FISH SPECIES

ABSTRACT

 Work on production proximate and physicochemical analyses of fish flour produced from Tilapia, cat and stock fishes was investigated. The fish species after harvesting were processed hygienically to flour. Proximate analysis result shows that catfish has high moisture content of 9.79, followed by Tilapia fish which has 9.5% and stock 8.8% protein content is high in stockfish 69.9%, then catfish 68.0% and tilapia fish which have 65.7%, and the carbohydrate level in stock fish is 7%, 5.3% in Tilapia fish and 4.7% in cat fish. Then the physicochemical analysis gives the total volatile bases of stock fish as 5.6%, followed by Tilapia fish 3.5% and 2.8% catfish. Organoleptic analysis result showed that there was no significant difference among the samples in terms of colour, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability. Acceptable fish flour could therefore be produced from fish species.