ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE PROFILE OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM APPARENTLY HEALTHY DOMESTIC LIVESTOCK IN SOUTH-WEST NIGERIA (OYO STATE)

ABSTRACT

 

This study was conducted to determine the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli isolate from apparently healthy domestic livestock viz: cow, goats and chicken from Oyo State Nigeria. E. coli was isolated using Eosin Methylene Blue Agar (EMB) and identified by conventional microbiological technique. The isolate were tested against 14 antibiotics using the disc diffusion method. A total of 42 different antibiotics resistance profile were observed with each isolate showing resistance to at least four or more drugs tested. Generally, the E. coli isolates showed resistance rates of 93.8% to Ampicilin; 15.3% to Chloramphenicol, 52.7% to cloxacillin, 74.3% Erythromycin, 20.9% to Gentamicin, 53.8% to Penicillin, 17.7% to Streptomycin, 67.3% to Tetracyclin, 21.1% to Ceftazidine 70.7% to Cefuroxine, 20.5% to Cefixine, 28.8% to Ofloxacine, 58.6% to Augmentin, 27.2% to Nitorfurantion 27.3% to Ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed that average number of resistance phenotypes per isolate was significantly higher for cow compared with poultry. A significant public health concern observed in this study is that multi drug resistant: commensal E. coli strains may constitute a potential reservoir of resistance genes that could be transferred to pathogenic bacteria.  

PRODUCTION AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE JAM PRODUCED FROM FOUR (4) DIFFERENT TROPICAL FRUITS APPLE, PINEAPPLE, ORANGE AND BANANA

ABSTRACT

 Composite jam was produced from four different tropical fruits – pineapple, apple, orange and banana at different proportion. Four different samples were produced with the following proportion sample A 70% pineapple and 10% of banana, apple and orange. Sample B 70% banana, 10% pineapple, apple and orange. Sample C 70% apple, 10% orange, pineapple apple and banana. Sample D 70% orange. 10% pineapple, banana and apple. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis using multiple comparism method. Sample A which compare of 70% pineapple pulp was rated best in term of colour spread-ability, and General Acceptability while sample B, C and D was rated best in term of texture, taste. However statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant different among the four sample.

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAD FROM BLENDS OF WHEAT, FERMENTED AND UNFERMENTED PLANTAIN FLOUR

ABSTRACT

 The production and evaluation of bread from blends of wheat, ripe plantain and fermented plantain flour were produced. Proximate, functional, pasting and sensory analyses were carried out on them. The ripe plantain and the fermented plantain flour were blends with wheat in different proportions, 90 : 10, 80 : 20, 70 : 30, 60 : 40 and 50 : 50. From the sensory analysis carried out, ripe plantain and fermented plantain flour were generally more acceptable in the production of bread with blends of wheat flour at 90 : 10 and 80 : 20 ratio respectively i.e. 90% of wheat and 10% of fermented plantain flour 90% of wheat and 10% of ripe plantain flour and 80% of wheat and 20% of fermented plantain flour, 80% of wheat and 20% of ripe plantain flours. And when compared with whole wheat bread there were little significant difference between them. From the proximate analysis carried out fermented plantain flour contains moisture (10%), ash (3%), crude protein (8.95%), dry matter (90%) and either extract (1%) while ripe plantain flour contains Moisture (10%), Dry matter (90%), Ash (4%), Crude fibre (1%), either extract (1%) and crude protein (9.02%). From functional analysis carried out, ripe plantain flour had the bulk density of 0.459/cm3, water holding capacity of 8.5g/g, pH value of 4.62, water absorption of 0.23g/g, solubility index of 28% and the gel strength is very strong while fermented plantain flour had the bulk density of 0.7g/cm3, water holding capacity of 7.5g/g, pH value of 4.71, water absorption of 0.2g/g, solubility index of 25% and also the gel strength of fermented plantain flour is very strong. The analysis of the bread samples revealed that the bread samples stay for four days before spoilage.

EFFECT OF MODIFICATION ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIGER NUT STARCH (IMUMU)

ABSTRACT

Work on the effect of modification on the physical properties of tigernut starch was investigated. Starch from tigernut was isolated by wet milling process and physico-chemical properties of native and modified tigernut starches (cyperus esculetus) were analyzed. The carboxymethylated modified starch had highest amount of protein (0.45%) fibre (0.25%) and moisture content (14.96%) while natives had highest amount of fat (0.60%) ash (0.17%) starch (77.90%) and amylose 17.71%. The carbohydrate contents of native, acid modified, hydrogen peroxide and carboxymethylated modified starches were 85.27%, 84.84%, 83.74% and 83.74% respectively. The physicochemical analysis showed that native tigernut starch had the highest valve of total solid (86.60%) and PH (6.63) while hydrogen modified starch had highest amount of TTA (0.495%). The study therefore had an effect proximate and physicochemical of the starch samples.

PROXIMATE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF FISH FLOUR OBTAINED FROM THREE FISH SPECIES

ABSTRACT

 Work on production proximate and physicochemical analyses of fish flour produced from Tilapia, cat and stock fishes was investigated. The fish species after harvesting were processed hygienically to flour. Proximate analysis result shows that catfish has high moisture content of 9.79, followed by Tilapia fish which has 9.5% and stock 8.8% protein content is high in stockfish 69.9%, then catfish 68.0% and tilapia fish which have 65.7%, and the carbohydrate level in stock fish is 7%, 5.3% in Tilapia fish and 4.7% in cat fish. Then the physicochemical analysis gives the total volatile bases of stock fish as 5.6%, followed by Tilapia fish 3.5% and 2.8% catfish. Organoleptic analysis result showed that there was no significant difference among the samples in terms of colour, taste, aroma, texture and overall acceptability. Acceptable fish flour could therefore be produced from fish species.

NUTRITIONAL & FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF MODIFIED STARCH FROM BREADFRUIT (Artrocarpus altilis)

ABSTRACT

The proximate composition of the pell, pulp and core of breadfruit are revealed that the highest moisture, ash, protein, fat and crude fibre contents can be found in the core while the pulp contained the highest levels of carbohydrate, starch, nitrogen free extract and organic matter. Total free and reducing sugars were highest in the core and lowest in the peel. Sucrosew, and glucose and fructose followed a similar pattern as the reducing sugars, while the flatus producing oligosaccharides raffinose (0.1%) and starchyose (0.05%) were present in the core only raffinose was present (0.05%) in both the peel and the pulp. Extracted starch from the breadfruit pulp was 58% of the total starch content on dry weight basis with minimal levels of ash, fat, protein and 98.6% starch. The extracted starch was 78% pure and contained only 2.3% damaged starch a two-stage pattern while the brabender amylograms showed patterns very typical of starches from most normal non-waxy cereals. The kinetics of carbohydrate breakdown under different storage conditions showed a biphasic first order, slow in the firsts and there after accelerated. Carbohydrate breakdown as an indicator of fruit determination was highest when breadfruit was stored at room temperature, while there was only a little difference in those stored in water, formal dehide solution or in the refrigerator.