Pito drink was produced from sorghum grain. The product was subjected to mycotoxin analysis using the HPLC. The result of the analysis shows that ochratoxin A and fumonisin are present in the samples the pito has high value of ochratoxin A than the sorghum grain. Also the pito sample has 51.138 ng/ml of OTA while sorghum grain has 39.680ng/ml of OTA. The result also shows that fumonisin value of pito sample is 20.856ng/ml while 16.241ng/ml is present in the sorghum grain. The result within the permitted level or tolerance of OTA and fumonisin according to WHO/FAO, Joint expert committee on food additives (JWECFA M1996)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of content vi
1.0 Introduction 1 – 6
1.1 Cereals 6 – 12
1.2 Pito 11 – 13
1.3 Beverages 13 – 14
1.4 Aim and Objectives 14
2.0 Literature review 15
2.1 Health implication of mycotoxins 16 – 17
2.2 Alimentary toxin aleukal 17 – 18
2.3 Health implication 18
2.4 Acute cardiac beriberi 18 – 19
2.5 Effect of ochratoxin A an Human and Animal Health 19 – 20
2.6 Effect of fumonism on Human and Animal 20 – 22
3.0 Materials and methodology 23
3.1 Materials 23
3.2 Methodology 23
3.3 Malting process 23
3.3.1 Fig 3.3.1 Flow chart for the production of pito 24
3.4 Extraction procedure 24 – 25
4.0 Results and Discussion 26
4.1 Result 26
4.2 Discussion 26 – 27
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation 28
5.2 Conclusion 28
5.3 Recommendation 28
Mycotoxins are chemical compounds procued by actively growing molds (Fungi) as secondary metabolites that can negatively affect human. The term mycotoxin is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products product by fungi that readily colonize crops. Most fungi are aerobic. (They use oxygen) and are found almost everywhere in extremely small qualities due to the minute size of their spores. They consume organic matter whenever humidity and temperature are sufficient. One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins and/or the same mycotoxin as another species. (Desjardin proctor, 2007).
Where conditions are right, fungi proliferate into colonies and mycotoxins levels become high. The reason for the production of mycotoxins is not yet known, they are neither necessary for growth nor the development of the fungi. Because mycotoxins weaken the receiving host, the fungus may use them as a strategy to better the environment for further fungi proliferation. The production of toxins depends on the surrounding intrinsic and extrinsic, environments and the toxins vary greatly in their severity, depending on the organism infected and its susceptibility, metabolism and defense mechanisms. Some of the health effects found in animals and humans include death, identifiable diseases or health problems, weakened immune systems without specificity to a toxin and as a allergens or irritants. Some mycotoxins are harmful to other microorganisms such as other fungi or even bacteria, penicillin is one example. It has been suggested that mycotoxin in stored animal feed are the cause of apparent sex change in hens (Gajecki 2002, kamimura 1987).
Mycotoxins can appear in the food chain as a result of fungal infection of crops, either by being eaten directly by humans or by being used as livestock feed. Mycotoxins greatly resist decomposition or being brokendown in digestion, so they remain in the food chain in meat and dairy products. Even temperature treatments, such as cooking and freezing, do not destroy mycotoxins (klich and pitt, 1988).
Although various wild mushrooms contain an assortment of poisons that are definitely fungal metabolites causing noteworthy health problems for human, they are rather arbitral excluded from discussion of mycotoxilogy. In such cases the distinction. Mycotoxins exposure is almost always accidental whereas with mushrooms improper identification and ingestion causing mushroom poisoning is commonly the case. Ingestion causing misidentified mushrooms containing mycotoxins may result in hallucinations. The cyctopeptide produced Amantia phallodie is well known for its toxic potential and is responsible for approximately 90% of all mushroom fatalities. (shank 1978).
Many international agencies are trying to achieve universal standardization of regulatory limits formycotoxins. Currently, over 100 countries have regulations regarding mycotoxins in the feed industry in which 13 mycotoxins or group of mycotoxins are concerns. The process of assessing a need for mycotoxin regulation includes a wide array of in laboratory testing which includes extracting, clean up and separation techniques most official regulations and control methods are based on high performance liquid techniques (e.g. HPLC) through international bodies. It is implied that any regulations regarding these toxins will be in co-ordinance with any other countries with which a trade agreement exists. Many of the standard for the method performance analysis for mycotoxins is set by the European committee for standardization (CEN). However, one must take note that scientific risk assessment is commonly influenced by culture and politics which in turn will affect trade regulations of mycotoxins. (Newell, 1983).
Food based mycotoxins were studied extensively worldwide throughout the 20th century. In Europe, statutory levels of a range of mycotoxins permitted in food and animal are set by a range of European directives and commission regulations. The US food and drug administration has regulated and enforced limits on concentrations of mycotoxins in foods and feed industries since 1985. it is through various compliance programs that the FDA monitors these industries to guarantee that mycotoxins are kept at a practical level. These compliance programs sample food including peanut and products, tree nuts, corn and corn products, cotton seed and milk. These is still a lack of sufficient surveillance data on some mycotoxins that occur in the US which is largely due to the lack of reliable analytical methods. A proactive monitoring program for agriculture the safety of a product. The most important types of mycotoxins are: Aflatoxins, atrinin, patulin, Ergot Alkalouds etc.
These are type of mycotoxins produced by aspergillus species of fungi such as A flauus and A parasiticus. The umbrella term of mycotoxins produced which are B1, B2, G1 and G2. Aflatoxin B1, the most toxic is a potent carcinogen and has been directly connected to adverse health effects such as Liver cancer, in many animal species (Klich and Pitt, 1988).
Aflatoxins were discovered in 1960 following the death of 100,000 young Turkey in England, and high incidences of the liver diseases in Ducklings in Kenya and hatchery reared trout in the United States, English scientists United States, English scientists soon established the cause of all these problem to be toxins produced by the common moulds. Aspergillus flavus assay techniques were devised and preliminary toxicological studies carried out (sergeant 1963). Aflatoxins have both acate and chronic toxicity in animals are produce four quite different effects. Acute liver damage, liver, arrhosis, induction of tumours and teratogence and other genetic effects. Acute toxicity of aflatoxins to humans has been encountered only rarely (Shank, 1978). In 1967, Tawanese in two farming communities became ill with apparently food poisoning. Nineteen of these affected were children of whom three died. Rice from affected households were blackish green and mouldly, and appeared to be of poorer quality than rice, contained about 200g/kg of Aflatoxin B1, which probably responsible for the outbreak post mortem examination were not carried out. In 1974, an outbreak of hepatitis that affected 400 Indian people of whom 100 died was almost certainly due to aflatoxins. The outbreak was eared to corn heavily contaminated with flavus and containing upto 15mg.kg aflatoxons, consumption by some of the affected adults was estimated to be 2 – 6mg in a single day. It has been Reye’s syndrome, a common cause of death in Southeast Asian. Significant levels of aflatoxins (1 – 4g/kg) was found in the livers of 23 Thai children who have died from Reye’s syndrome in zechoslovakia and in New Zealand have also been found to have aflatoxins in their livers at autopsy kwashiorkor, a disease of children in Northern Africa and elsewhere in undernourished populations which is usually attributed to nutritional deficiencies, may also be related to aflatoxin intake (Hendrickse, 1982). Aflatoxin induced liver damage may make these children less able to cope with the high protein diets usually recommended as the cure for kwashiorkor (Newell 1983).
Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin that comes in three secondary metabolite form A, B, and C. All are produced by penicillum and Aspergillus species, the three forms difer in that ochratoxin B (OTB) is a non chlorinated form of ochratoxin A (OTA) and that ochratoxin C (OTC) is na ethyl ester form of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus ochraccus is found as a contamination of a wide range of commodities including beverages such as beer and wine. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main speices found vine fruit which releases its toxin during the juice making process. (Hardin, Robbins, Kelmen, 2009). In the early 1970’s observes in Denmark noted a high incidence of nephrits (Kidney inflammation) in pigs at slaughter. A search for possible cause eventually showed the presence of ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin originally reported from Aspergillus ochraceus. Analysis of pigt feeds showed that 50% of samples contained ochratoxin A at levels upto 27mg/kg. The mould responsible was reprted to be penicilliom virdicatum, but has more recently been shown to be pverrucosum (Pilt 1987). This species occur commonly in Danish barely (frisvad and vauf, 1985). The discovery of ochratoxin led to analysis of pork and becon. It was found that a significant proportion of ingested ochratoxin lodged unchanged in depot fat. The risk to humans is difficult to assess, but as pig meat are an important part of the Danish diet and rural populations usually eat their own uninspected pigs certainly exists. Death rates from kidney failure are high in some Danish rural areas and it is reasonable to suppose the cause is ochratoxin, penicillum verrocusum has not been report to occur in Asia aspergillus ochraceus and related species which also produce ochratoxin A. The significance of ochratoxin A. in trpical climate has not yet been assessed (King 1979, Lancet 1979).
This is a toxin that was first isolated from penicullum, citrinum in over a dozen species of penicillium and several species of Aspergillus some of these species are used to produce human foodstuffs such as cheese (penicillum camcmberti) cake, Miso and soa sauce (Aspergillus Oryzae). Citrnin is associated with yellow rice diseases in Japan and acts as a nephhrotoxin in all animal species tested. Although it is associated with many human foods, (wheat, rice, corn, barley, oats iye and food coloured with monascus pigment) its full significance for human health is unknown (Susan, 2006)
These are compounds produced as a toxic mixture of alkaloids in the sclerotia of species of clauiceps which are common pathogens of various grass spices. The ingestion of ergot sclerota form infected cereals, commonly in the form of bread produced form contaminated flour, cause ergotism, the human disease histrionically known as St. Anthony’s Fire.
This is a toxin produced by the P expansumi, aspergillus and paccilomyces fungi, species P expansum is especially associated with a range of mouldly fruits nad vegetables. Mycotoxins are important because they can be costly when they affect. Animal productivity, human health, international trade, the foods are agriculture organization of the United Nation (FAO) states the cost of the mycotoxins in Canada and United States is approximately 5billion a year. Mycotoxin can develop at various stage of pre-harvest growth. Harvest, storage (Schaafsma, Hooker, 2007)
Cereals, grains or cereal grains are grasses (members of the monocot families poaseac or Graminea) cultivated for the edible components of their fruit seeds (botanically a type of fruit called a caryopsis) the endosperm, germ and bran cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other types of crop, they are therefore staple crops.
In their natural form as in whole grain, they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fat, oils and protein. However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrates and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In some developing nations grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. (Ekundayo, 1965)
ORIGINS OF CEREALS
The origins of some cereals are obscure more than one had its cultural beginning before recorded history. The development of cereal grains, probably more than any other factor permitted the earliest tribes to change from nomadic life to full or partial agricultural subsistence. They provided more food with less effort than did any other crop. They were important for their ability to provided subsistence and security of subsistence overtime. Cereals can be easily stored to provide food between harvests. Their role reducing the time spent by people in hunting and gathering allowed human kind to develop other pursuits.
The various cereals probably developed in different parts of the world coin is likely the only cereal nature to the Americas, while wheat and barely may have been cultivated first in the Fertile Crescent area of the Middle East. The pseudo-cereal amaranth is also native to the Americas and the earliest identification of amaranth as a grain comes from archaeological dig at a caw in tehaucan, pueble, Mexico where seeds of Amaranthus cruentus were dated as six thousand years old. Aztec writings are the first recorded indication of its use and mention collection of large quantities of amaranth along with corn and beans in annual tribute to the ruling class. Although the orgin of proso millet has not been ascertained, it is one of the first cultivated cereals, most like prior to wheat. Proso millet has been known for many thousands of years in Eastern Asia including China, India and Russia (Ekundayo, 1965).
Maize wheat and rice together accounted for 87% of all grain production worldwide and 43% of all food calories in 2003, while the production of oats and rye have drastically fallen from their 1960s levels other grain that are important in some places but that have little production globally land are not included in FAO statistics include.
Test popular in Ethiopia but scarcely known elsewhere. This ancient grain is a staple in Ethiopia. It is high in fiber and protein. Its flair is often used to make injera. It can also be eaten as a warm breakfast cereal similar to ferima with a chocolate or nutly flavour. Its flour and whole grain products can usually be found in natural food stores.
- Wild rice, grown in small amounts in North America
- Amaranth, ancient pseudocereal, formerly a staple crop of the Aztec Empire and now widely grown in Africa.
- Kaniwa, close relative of guinea.
Several other species of wheat have also been domesticated some very early in the history of agriculture.
- Spelt, a close relative of common wheat
- Einkorn, a wheat species with a single grain
- Emmer, one of the first crops domesticated in the fertile crescent
- Durum, the only tetraploid species of wheat currently cultivated, used to make semolina.
While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar. All are annual plants consequently one planting yields one harvest. Wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, and spelt are the “cool-season” cereals. These are hardly plants that grow well in moderate weather and cease to grow in hot weather (approximately 300c but this varies by species and Varity). The warm season cereals are tender and prefer hot weather. Barely and rye are the hardiest cereals able to overwinter in the subarctic and Siberia. Many cool season cereals are grow where it may be possible to grow multiple crops in a year (Emmanual D. A, 1975)
The warm season cereals are grow intropical lowland year round and in temperature climates during the frost free season. Rice is commonly grown in flooded through some strains are grown on dry land other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum are adapted to arid condtions.
Cool season cereals are well adpted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either winter or spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn, germinate and grow vegetatively, then become dormant during winter. They resume growing in the spring time and mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system make optimal use of water and free the land for another crop early in the growing season.
Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization. Exposure to low temperature for a genetically determined length of time. Where winters are too warm vernalization or exceed the hardness of the crop (which varies by species and variety), farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals and planted in early spring time and mature later that same summer without vernalization. Spring cereals typically required more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals
Once the cereals plants have grown their seeds they have completed their life cycle. The plants die and become brown and dry. As soon as the parents and their seed kernels are reasonably dry, harvest can begin.
In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes and winnows are grain during a single pass across the field. In developing countries, a variety of harvest methods are in use depending on the cost of labour, from combines to hand tools such as the single or cradle.
If a crop is harvested during wet weather, the grain may not dry adequately in the field to prevent spoilage during its storage. In this case, the grain is sent to a dehydrating facility where artificial heat dries it.
In North America, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator, a large storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers. The farmer may sell the grain at the time of delivery or maintain ownership of a share of grain in the pool for later sale. Storage facilities should be protected from small grain pests, rodents and birds.
STORAGE AND TRANSPORTATION
Compared with many other crops, cereals and pseudo cereals are extremely amenable to storage. The moisture content at harvest is typically below 15 percent and their composition and seed coats are such that deterioration is slow. Seasonal harvest with a continuous demand means that storage between harvest is required under typical conditions this need can be met easily with care, storage for many years without serious loss of quality is possible storage during times of surplus is a part of human history, and with benefits of modern technology, cool dry conditions can be maintained and storage can be successful for extended periods of time. There are however problems with storage including excessive moisture content at the time of storage, excessive temperature microbial, insect and arechuid infectation, rodent and bird predation, mechanical damaged and biochemical deterioration. The latter is especially important for cereals and pseudo cereals with higher than normal oil content because the oil becomes rancid overtime.
Overview and constraints, Nigeria is the second largest producer of sorghum with the majority of domestic production used for household consumption and fodder. Elsewhere in the world, sorghum is a cash crop processed in to food, beverages, commercial animal feed and ethanol. Development of commercial sorghum offers substantial benefits to Nigeria farmers and National food security. Increase demand and production yield in turn raise farmer income. Commercial sorghum farming techniques similar to those for maize and wheat can produce harvest in excess of 3MT perha or more than 4x tradition methods.
Market is committed replacing imported grains to meet an unmet industrial demand estimated at 200,000 matric tons per years. Market is also supporting new application for the crop out strategy increasing food security and competitiveness of Nigerian sorghum requires improvements in technology on farm practices and supply chain linkages. MARKETS has partnered with commercial processes such as the Aba malting plant in Abia State, the largest sorghum plant in the world, markets is also supporting a sorghum hybrid development program in collaboration with research institutes IAR and ICRISAT. It is expected that well adapted sorghum hybrids will help to push up yields from 2 to 4 mt/ha thereby increasing income from less than 20,000 Naria.ha to over 50,000 Naira/ha
The sorghum malting plant in Abia State, which reduces imports of malted barley, points to investor confidence in the continued competitionness of Nigeria sorghum in the local beverage industry. Aba malting plant can currently process 30,000 MT of sorghum and plans to expend capacity to 60,000 MT. Nigeria currently produces enough sorghum to satisfy local demand and export 50,000 MT per annum (Ekundayo 1969).
Pito is a fermented alcoholic beverage which is traditionally brewed from sorghum or maize malts. It has a characteristic sour taste and is slightly and is slightly heavy in the mouth during drinking. It is a fermentation product of mixed culture of yeast, mould and lacticacid bacteria, all of which may be active when the product is consumed. It is drunk mainly along the west coast of Africa especially in Nigeria. The traditional method of producing pito which involves malting of the sorghum grains, mashing and fermentation of the wort has been described (Ekundayo 1969, Orgbonna 1983).
Pito like most other local beers in Nigeria is still produced on a small scale with traditional and primitive equipment and by people that have no scientific knowledge of the process and have little regard for hygiene. The production process renders the brew very susceptible to contanunation by pathogence organisms during production Ogbonna (1983) noted that some pito consumers have often complained about having running stomach after taking alcoholic beverages. Similar cereal based
In the melt house, barley grain germination is initiated by the uptake of water in a steeping vessel. The grain imbibes water during controlled cycles of water spraying or water immersion followed by aeration until the water content of the grain reaches 42 to 48%, water enters the grain via the embryo and after approximately 24 hours, the first visible sign of germination is the appearance of the root, as a white chit. The grains are then transferred to malting beds where germination is allowed to proceed a period of 5 days.
The speed of germination is controlled by temperature and aeration of the malt bed, while moisture content is maintain by spraying further embrayo growth, with the appearance of roottess and acrospire can lead to root entangling. The grain bed is regularly turned with a rotating screw to prevent grains melting together. Green malt produced after five days of germination it is kila dried and partly cooked in a forced flow of hot air. Hydrolaser produced during malting are partially inactivated during the process, malt colour, enhance by killing at higher temperature, may be desirable for production of darker beer, but it leads to further heat inactivation of hydrolases. The brittle malt rootlets are separated from the malt and utilized in animal feeds. The kilned malt is stable for storage and has a friable texture for the milling process which proceeds brewing (Ekundayo 1969).
There are several kinds of beverages which are not consumed for their food which value but rather for their thirst quenching properties or for their stimulating effects. There are different types of beverage. We have alcoholic beverage and non alcoholic beverage.
An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly know as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages that distilled after fermentation are fermented from non cereal source such as grapes or honey or are fermented from unmalted cereal grain are not classified as beer the two main types of beer are ages and ace. Ale is further classified into varieties such as pale ace, stout and brown ace. Most beer is flovoured with hops which add bitterness and act as a natural preventative other flavouring such as fruit or herbs may else be used. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 65 alcohol by volume, but it may be less than 2 % or as beer is part of the drinking culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals. The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume.
Most yeast cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%, so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer and sake, strains of yeast have been developed that reproduce in solution of up to 25% (Gamma 1977).
NON ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE
A non alcoholic beverages is a beverage that contain less than 0.5% alcohol by volume. Non- alcoholic versions of some alcohol beverages, such as non alcoholic beer (near beer) and cocktails (mocktails), are widely available where alcoholic beverages are sold. Sodas, juices and sparkling cider contain no alcohol but non alcoholic beer and non alcoholic wine undergo an alcohol removal process that may leave a small amount of alcohol because of this, some states have legal restrictions on non-alcoholic beer and wine.
Non-alcoholic beverages are carbonated beverages are those made in the presence of carbon compound especially carbondioxide, Examples are soda, water, coca- cola, ginger ale, tonic water, pepsi-cola etc. Non carbonated beverages are those that are merely juice from fruits drink and nectars, vegetable juice, water, chocolate drinks, coffee, tea, black currant etc. (Gamma ,1977). There are other classes of beverages called traditional alcoholic and non- alcoholic beverages. These beverages most often are produced from cereals and are sometime fermented. Examples are pito, burukuru, kunu-zaki
1.3.2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aims and objectives of this work is to produce non-alcoholic local beverages from cereals which is pito and to analyze the sample for possible presence of mycotoxin.