Three varieties of pearl millet seeds (CITA2) (8156) and (8864) respectively. Each variety were obtained from IITA Ibadan. It was forted graded and the waste ones were taken to laboratory for chemical analysis, our protein content, amino acid, fatty acid profile and vitamin evolution. Result of analysis obtained in term of protein shows that sample A contain 24.87% while sample B contain 24.83% and sample C contain 22.53% respectively. In term of amino acid sample A contain 8.49% while sample B contain 8.32% and sample C contain 8.65% respectively. In term of fatty acid sample A contain 4.74% while sample B contain 4.72% and sample C contain 3.83% respectively. In term of vitamin sample A contain 5.39% while sample B contain 5.37% and sample C contain 5.38% respectively.




The millets are a group of small seeded species of cereal crops or grains belonging to the family graminaea and widely grown around the world for food and fodder. The most widely cultivated species in order of world wide production are pearl millet (Pennisatum glaucum), foxtail millet (Setaria talica), proso millet (paneium miliaceum) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) (Crawford and lec, 2003).

The most important characteristics of millet is their unique ability to tolerate and survive under adverse condition of continuous or intermittent drought as compared to most other cereals like maize and sorghum (LCR, 1997). Millets are principally food source in aid and regions of the world. Ikwell et al (1993) ranked pear millet as the most important cereal in the Southern Sudan and the Northern Guinea, Nkama (1998) outlined the uses and traditional food preparations of pearl millet in Nigeria. The grain serve as food for the majority of people of Africa who utiline it in the form of porridge produced from flour called ‘tuwo’, efresting drink ‘kunu’, dessent ‘danwake’ and palp ‘ogi’, millets bear in Cameron, millet flour called ‘Bajari’ in Western India. There are two major types of recommended and local varieties of millet in Northern Nigeria namely, Ex-Borno with a yield potential of 2,000 – 3,000 kg/ha and the improved SOSAT variety with a yield potential of 2,500.

Furthermore, the seed is a valuable food resources on account of its protein and lipid contents: 12% protein, 3% crude fibre, 4% fat (Ojediran, 2008). There is a growing interest in the crop because of the technological possibilities of its utilization in such industrial applications as starch production. Therefore, consequent on the large seals production and commercial exploitation of the crop, is the need to study the physical and mechanical attributes of this crop, which are important in the design of equipment for handling, cleaning, storing and processing (J. Sanchos et al; 2008; Vilehe et al; 2003; Kachru et al; 1994). To date some physical properties of pearl millet seeds have been evaluated by Chucwu and Ajisegiri (2005), sine and shape sphericity; Ajaw and Ojediran (2006); thousand seed mass, bulk and solid densities and terminal velocity. However, information on the combined effects of moisture variations, and crop varieties on physical properties of pearl millet appear to be scanty in literature. The present studying is therefore aimed at contributing to the knowledge of pearl millet seeds to improve the post harvest handling and storage operations and equipment through investigation of some relevant physical properties such as axial dimensions, sphericity bulk, and solid densities, thousand seed mass, angle of response and static coefficient of friction on five structural surfaces as affected by variety and moisture content.




Honey is as old as written history dating back to 2100 BC where it was mentioned Sumerian and Babylonian cuneiform writings, the Hittie code and then sacred writings of India and Egypt it is presumably even older than that. It names from English living and it was the first and most wide spread sweetener used by man, legend has it that cupid dipped his love arrows in honey before aiming at unsuspecting lovers. In the old testament of the Bible, Israel was often referred to as the land of milk and honey. “Mead, an alcoholic drink made from honey was called nectar of the goods” high praise indeed. Honey was valued highly and often used as a form of currency tribute or offering. In the 4th century A. D German peasants paid their feudal Lords in honey and beeswax.

Although experts argue whether the honeybee is native to the Americas, conquering spanards in 1600 AD found Mexicans and Central Americans had already developed bee keeping method to produce honey. In ancient days, honey has been used not only in food and beverages, but also to make cement in furniture polishes and varnishes and for medicinal purposes. And of course, bees perform vital senlice of pollinating fruits, legumes and other types of food producing plants in the course of their business of honey production. Honey was pronounced in English (hnni) is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees i.e. (GenusApis) is the most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by bee keepers and consumed by human. Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees transform nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation, and store it as a primary food source wax honey combs inside the beehive. Beekeeping practices encourage over production of honey so the excess can be taken from the colony. Honey acts its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavours that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweetness. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity (9w) of 0.6. However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium clostridium botulinum which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin producing bacteria in the infant’s immature intestinal tract, leading to illness and even death.

Honey has a long history of human consumption, and is used in various foods and beverages as a sweetener and flavouring. It also has a role in religion and symbolism, flavours of honey varies based on the available. It is also used in various medicinal traditions to treat ailments. The study of pollens and spores in raw honey (mellissopalynology) can determine the floral source of honey. Because bees carry an Electrostatic charge and can attract other particles, the same techniques of melissopalynology can be used in area environmental studies of radioactive particles dust or particulate pollution. Honey is produced by bees as a food source. In cold weather or when fresh food source are scarce, bees use their stored honey as their source of energy. By controlling for bee swarms to nest in artificial hives, people have been able to semidomesticate the insects and harvest excess honey.