The physiochemical properties of Dudu Yoghurt was investigated. Dudu Yoghurt was whitish with pleasant odour and sweet. The PH of Dudu Yoghurt ranges between 3.20 and 3.40 during five days incubation period. The electrical conductivities of Dudu Yoghurt ranges between 3.20 and 4.11 during five days incubation period. Various methods are discussed to investigate the physical and structural attributes of Dudu Yoghurt. Various processing variables are discussed to test for different micro-organisms responsible for fermentation of these Dudu Yoghurt. A better understanding of factors contributing to the physical and structural attributes may allow manufacturer to improve the quality of yoghurt.




Title page





Table of contents







1.0      Introduction



1.1      Literature Review

1.2      Milk Standardization


1.3     Main Process steps in the manufacture of set and stirred yoghurt

1.4      Homogenization

1.5      Fermentation process

1.5.1  Milk fat making process

1.5.2    Definition and standards

1.6       Overview of the butter making process

1.7     The fat globule

1.7.1   Whipping and Churning

1.7.2   Crystallization of the milk fat during ageing



2.0 Materials

2.1 Laboratory methods/procedure

2.2 Total plate count (TPC)


3.0 Result Description of Duty Yoghurt 14



4.0      Discussion 19

4.1      Recommendation and Conclusion 20 References





Yoghurt are prepared by fermentation of milk bacteria culture consisting of a mixture of streptococcus sub sp. Thermophilus and lactobacilius dcibtueckii sub sp bulgarcicus. There are two major types: set and stirred yoghurt. The main manufacturing procedures of these two types of yoghurt are described in figure 2.

Buffer is essentially the fat of the milk. It is usually made from sweet cream and is salted. However it can also be made from acidulated or bacteriologically sourced cream and salted (sweet) buffer are also available. Well into the 19th century buffer was still made from cream that had allowed to stand .and sour naturally. For processed cheese containing no active acid starter bacteria low 02 and high CO2 atmosphere were optimum for cheese containing active starter stent cultures atmosphere containing low O2 and controlled C02 using a permeable film provided the best results. For mold ripened cheese requiring the activity of the fungi to maintain food quality normal O2 and high but controlled CO2 atmosphere were best. In Italian soft cheese such as stracctino, vacuum packaging decreased the growth of yeast, resulting in a shelf life extension of 728 days (Sarias, Plussi, Agili, & Stacchini, 1996) The type of spoilage microorganisms differs widely among dairy foods because of ihe selective effects of practices followed- in production, formulation processing, packaging, storage, distribution and handling.


. The processing steps involved in these two types of yoghurt manufacture (figure) include the standardization of milk (fat and protein content), homogenization, cooling and storage.


Milk is often mixed with skin milk and cream to standardize (or adjust) the fat content to the desired level, Milk powders, or milk protein concentrate can be blended with milk using a powder dispersion unit. The milk solids (including the fat content) for yoghurt ranges from around 9% of concentrated yoghurt to more than 20% for certain product have milk solids contents of 14 – ]5% (Tamime and Robinson, 1999). The minimum milk solids not – fat content required in standards or regulations in many countries ranges from 8.2 to 8.6% (Tamime and Robinson, 1999). Codex regulations for yoghurt indicate that the minimum milk protein content is 2.7% (except for concentrated yoghurt where the minimum protein content is after concentration and the maximum fat itent is 15% (Codex, 2008). The total solids content of milk can be increased by ; concentration processes such as evaporation under vacuum and membrane processes




 Effect of spices (garlic and ginger extract) and salt concentration on the microbial load associated with process ‘Iru’ (Pakia biglobosa) were investigated. The raw locust bean (RLB) had the highest total viable counts of 1.8 x 106 Cfu/g. Fermented locust bean (FLB) had 3.4 x 105 cfulg while FLBGIN (Fermented locust bean with giger) had         2.8 x 104 cfu/g. Femented locust bean with garlie (FLBGAR) had 3.8 x 104 cfu/g while FLBS (fermented locust bean with salt concentration) had 2.0 x 104 FLBS had the lowest bacterial load. FLB had the highest total colifiran count 6.4 x 104 cfu/g while FLBS had the lowest 1.3 x 103 cful/g. the RLB had coliform count of 4.1 x 104 cfu/g. FLBGN and FLBGAR had total colifirm count 3.6 x 103 cfu/g, 7.2 x 103 cfu/g respectively. Six bacteria were associated with locust bean. They are Bacillus sp, Pseudomones sp, proteins sp, Fcauobacfesium sp, Enterobacter sp and Aeromohas sp. Fermented locust bean with salt had the least and lowest bacterial load. Salt is the best preservative on process ‘iru’ (Parkia biglobosa).




Title page                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii

Table of content                                                                                              iv



1.0       Introduction                                                                                        1

1.1       Aims and objectives of the study                                                       2



2.0       Literature review                                                                                 3

2.1       Origin and geographic distribution                                                     3

2.2       Legumes                                                                                              3 -5

2.3       Preparation of legumes                                                                       5 – 8

2.4       Ginger                                                                                                 8 – 13

2.5       Adverse effects and toxicology                                                          13

2.6       Spiritual and religious perception                                                       14 – 19



3.0       Materials and methods                                                                        20

3.1       Low chart for the processing of Iru (Locus bean)                              20 – 22

3.2       Preparation of bacteria locust beans for fermentation                        23

3.3       Isolation procedure                                                                             23 – 24

3.4       Method Isolation                                                                                25




4.0       RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                       26

4.1       Result                                                                                                 26



5.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                               28

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                          28

5.2       Recommendations                                                                              28

References                                                                                          29 – 30



1.0                                                       INTRODUCTION

The high cost of animal protein has directed interest towards several leguminous seed proteins as potential sources of vegetable protein for human food and livestock feed. Among the plant species, gain legumes are considered as the major source of directly proteins.

They are consumed would wide, especially in developing and under developed countries where consumption of animal protein may be limited as a result of economic, social, cultural or religious factors.

Christiana N. Esenwah and Marcel J. Lkenebomeh, 2008

Locust bean is proteins Protein-Energy-Malnutrition (PEM) is a serious problem facing most developing nations as a result of inadequate in take of good quality protein source such as meat, fish and poultry product, which are out of reach to many populaces due to poor economy increase in population pressure and others natural calamities such as drought and flood ladeji et al., 1995; Nordeide et al., 1996). In these nations about 60% of the population suffers PEM, which results to high rate of mortality, permanent brain damage and decrease in learning capability of children (Abdullahi, 2000).

Apart from protein, legumes provide a high proportion of complex carbohydrates, starch, edible oil and fibre (Pirman et al, 2001; chau et al; 1998).

African locust bean seeds are rich in protein and usually fermented to a tasty food condiment called dawadawa which is used as a flavour intensifier for soups and stews and also adds protein to a protein – poor diet.

Among the leguminous plants used by man particularly in some African countries, is the African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobossa). The seeds are well known for their uses in the production of local condiment commonly known as Dadadawa (Hausa) or Iru (Yoruba). Furthermore, Parkia biglolose is such plant legumes with an outstanding protein quality and its protein and amino acid composition has been reported (Nordeide et al., 1996; Ega et al., Glew et al., 1997; Cook et al., 2000; lockeett et al., 2000). However, much research work has been done on the effect preservative of soy-Iru with either salt or ginger but not on processed Iru parkia biglobosa with different species and salt. In locust bean spoilage is deterioration of food by bacteria then, locust been can be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria produce food intoxication and infection (Adams and Moss. 1999).

Therefore, these is need to reduce the load and harmful effect of these pathogenic bacteria in locust bean in other to fit for consumption and to enhance its safety in consumer. This could be done by using different species extract (ginger, garlic, and salt-concentration in locust beans)



  1. To determine the microbiological effect of ginger on processed Iru (Parkia biolobosa).
  2. To determine the microbiological effect of garlic on processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa).
  • To determine the microbiological effect of salt concentration on processed Iru.
  1. To evaluate the best preservative in processed “Iru” (Parkia biglobossa).
  2. To evaluate the no of bacterial load in processed.
  3. To evaluate the bacterial load in processed Iru with salt, ginger and garlic.



Composite jam was produced from four different tropical fruits – pineapple, apple, orange and banana at different proportion. Four different samples were produced with the following proportion sample A 70% pineapple and 10% of banana, apple and orange. Sample B 70% banana, 10% pineapple, apple and orange. Sample C 70% apple, 10% orange, pineapple apple and banana. Sample D 70% orange. 10% pineapple, banana and apple. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis using multiple comparism method. Sample A which comparize of 70% pineapple pulp was rated best in term of colour spread ability, and General Acceptability while sample B, C and D was rated best in term of texture, taste. However statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant different among the four sample.



Title page                                                                                                       i

Certification                                                                                                  ii

Dedication                                                                                                     iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                       iv

Table of content                                                                                           v



1.1       Introduction                                                                                       1



2.0       Literature Review                                                                             2

2.1       Apple (Apricot)                                                                                  2 – 8

2.2       Pineapple (Ananas Sativus)                                                         8 – 12

2.3       Orange (Citrus Sinensis)                                                               12 – 17

2.4       Banana (musa Acminate)                                                              17 – 19



3.0       Materials and Method                                                                     20

3.1       Materials                                                                                            20

3.2       Methods                                                                                             20

3.2.1   Sample formulation                                                                                     20

3.2.2   Production Composite Jam                                                            21

3.2.3   Production flow chart of composite Jam                                      22 – 23

Appendix I                                                                                         24 – 27

Appendix II                                                                                        28 – 30

Appendix III                                                                                       31 – 33

Appendix IV                                                                                      34 – 36

Appendix V                                                                                       37 – 39




4.0       Results & discussions                                                                    40

4.1       Results variance ratio ‘F’ calculated ‘F’ Tabulated                    40 – 41



5.0       Conclusion & recommendation                                                    42

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                       42

Recommendation                                                                            42

References                                                                                      43



Jam is a shelf-stable food product from fruit pulp, pectin and sugar cooked to form a gel. Fleshy or pulpy fruits such as pineapple, pawpaw, orange, Apple, banana and mango etc or combination of these fruits are usually employed. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct part of fruit, a bright colour, good fruit flavour and jam jellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid. (Nickerson 1998)

Jam is a form of fruit preservation through the use of high concentration of sugar, hence jam can be classified as sugary food, and however their quality characteristics may be more easily determined from their relationship with fruit rather than with sugar. It is the product made by cooking fruit pulp to a suitable consistency. (Nickerson 1998)

Perfectly ripe and unblemished fruits are suitable for jam production because they have the best levels of pectin and a finest flavor. Pectin is important to the jam’ set, low pectin fruit like strawberries need extra pectin (from peel of unripe lemon or pectin enriched sugar) to attain a spreadable consistency.

Composite jam i.e. combination of two or more fruits to produce jam such as mango, pawpaw, pineapple, etc improve the nutritive content of the final product and as well create food variety for breakfast menu. Although producing of composite Jam requires careful handling and good technical know how which in the long run is a beneficial and worthwhile venture.

The aim and objective of this research work is to produce four types of composite jam from combination of Pineapple, Apple, Orange and Banana at different proportion and carry out sensory evaluation to determine which of the fruit combination is most preferred as suitable composite jam by panel of judges




This project work focused on the effect of cooking time on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of African yam beans (sphenostylis stenocarpa). The African yam bean was purchased from Institute of Agricultural Research and Training in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The proximate, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content of the samples were determined. The nutrients compositions of the African yam beans showed that the amount of protein range between 2.48% in AYBC to 4.71% in AYBA, the fibre content range     between 2.18% in AYBC to 3.66% in AYBA, the fat content range between 0.33% in AYBC to 0.61% in AYBA, the ash content range between 1.65 in AYBC% to 2.44% in AYBA, the moisture content range between 11.23% in AYBA to 13.73%in AYBC. The mineral content showed that the amount of Na range between 3.81 to 6.71mg/100g, K range between 248.60 to 368.73mg/100g, Fe range between 1.66 to 2.18mg/100g, Mg range between 38.94 to 51.64mg/100g, Mn  range between 9.89 to 12.65mg/100g. The anti-nutritional composition showed that the amount of tannin range between 0.107 to 0.136g/100g, the amount of phytate range between 0.108 to 0.129g/100g, the amount of oxalate range between 0.147 to 0.236g/100g, the amount of trypsin range between 1.070 to 1.118%, the amount of saponnin  range between 1.122 to 1.421%. From the result obtained, it was discovered that sample AYBA had highest value for proximate analysis except for the moisture content was low. The level of saponnins found in the samples was however higher than other anti-nutritional factor, but generally low to be any nutritional significant. The low protein content obtained in this study might be due to long hours of cooking because protein are denature by heat and the long cooking hours is desirable in other to minimized the amount of anti-nutritional.





1.1       Legumes

Legumes are member of a family of flowering plant known as leguminosae. It is one of the three largest families of flowering plant, with approximately 690 genera and about 18,000 species. Legumes are in significant component of nearly all terrestrial biomes on all continents except Antarctica. Some are fresh water aquatic, but no truly marine species exist. The species within the family range from dwarf herb among arctic and alpine vegetation to massive trees in tropical forest (Bisby et al, 2000).

The leaves usually occur alternately on the stem and are compound, meaning each leaf is divided into separate leaflets. Both pinnate and trifoliate leaves exist. Legumes are easily recognized by the structure of the flower. The flowers are hermaphroditic with male (stamens) and female (pistils) parts in the same flower and usually with five sepals and five petals. The principle unifying feature of the family is the fruit, a pod technically known as legume. The legume pod is modified in many ways, including flat, winged, fleshy, splitting open or indehiscent to facilitate dispersal by animals, wind and water. (Bisby et al, 2000).

The family is subdivided in to three subfamilies, Papilionoideas, Caesalpinioldeas and Momosoideas , which are identified by their flowers. The subfamily Papilionioideas is the largest of the tree subfamilies and the most widespread, extending farther into temperate regions, this subfamily can be easily recognized by its butterfly-like flower. Most of the important legume crop species consumed by human, including soybean, field pea, chickpea, field beans and peanut are in this group.

The subfamily Caesalpinioidea is comprised of tropical or subtropical trees and shrubs. The useful products derived from this subfamily include edible fruit (Tamarindus indica), sama medicine (Sanna spp.), hematoxylone red dye from the logwood tree (Haematoxylon campechianum) and resins used in plants, varnishes, inks, plastics, adhesives, and fire worksderived from the capal (Copaifera spp.) tree.

The subfamily Mimosoideae includes species of industrial, forage, browsing, and fodder importance such as Acacia spp. (Bisby et al, 2000). The Ausralian black-wood (Acacia malanoxylon) tree provides useful timber and gum Arabic from the tree of that name (Acacia semegal) is used in an array of industrial processes.

Legumes play a very important role in the local diets and constitute the main source of protein in diet of average Africans. The most important ones are cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and lime bean (Phaseohis lunatus ). Some legumes are over utilize while some are underutilize in our diets due to negligence and ignorance (Alator and Aladetin, 1989). Some of the underutilized legumes in Nigeria are African yam beans,(Sphenostylis sterocapa) and Black beans ( Phaseolous velgaris).

Africa yam beans (AYB) (Sphenostylis stenocarpa ( Hochest. Ex A. Rich) Harms)is an underutilize grain legumes in Nigeria. It is still cultivated by some traditional farmers in certain localities, mainly in the southern part of the country and Benue State (middle belt). It is locally called sese among the Yoruba-speaking people of south-west Nigeria. It is also found in other Western African counties, particularly Togo, Cote d’ lvoire and Cameroon, and in Central Africa (klu et al, 2001). Both West and Central Africa have been postulated as the origin of this crop (Potter and Doyle 2001). Although the plant can be grown for both its seeds and tubers, in Nigeria, AYB is mainly cultivated for the seed.

An Africa yam bean is an annual, with climbing, vine-like stems that require staking. In Nigeria, it is usually grown in association with yam, so the same stake serves as support for both crops (Togun and Egunjobi 1997). It is cultivated mainly for home consumption and only about 30% of the dry grain produced is sold. It is also planted for soil restoration (Saka et al, 2004) AYB is a good source of protein, fibre and carbohydrate. It is also rich in minerals such as phosphorus, iron and potassium, although it also contains some anti-nutrients, such as trypsin inhibitor, phytate, tannin, oxalate and other alkaloids (Ajibade et al. 2005; Fasoyiro et el. 2006). AYB is usually cooked and eaten alone or with yam, maize and rice. It can be used to replace cowpea in most food preparation, especially during the lean period when food is scarce among the rural farmers. One limitation of AYB is that the seed require a long cooking time (about 3 hours) because of the hard testa. This is energy and time consuming. The cooked bean is used as sauce while the water drained after boiling the beans is also drunk by lactating mothers to increase breast milk production (Kli et al. 2001).

At present AYB has been relegated to an unimportant position as it is grown predominantly by the older generation of farmers (Saka et al. 2004). The bulk of the genetic resources of this crop are in the hand of these farmers, which threaten its survival. There is therefore a need for germplasm collection, characterization and conservation of AYB, to prevent it from being lost. Information provided by characterization can be useful in identifying promising AYB genotypes that could be recommended directly to farmers and other end users, and for incorporation into breeding activities for further improvement. Despite the high consumption rate of African yam bean and its potential as a good source of foreign earnings, the traditional method of processing provide a poor-quality product with low nutrient content. This limits it utilization both locally and internationally.

The conservation are maintains of agrobiodivasity of neglected and underutilized plant species such as African yam beans  in seeds bank aim at contribution to food security and preventing a potential food crisis. Increasing the use of underutilize crops is one of the better ways to reduce nutritional, environmental and financial vulnerability in time of changes (Jaenicice and pasiecznilc, 2009). Their contribution to food security is unquestionable significant (Naylor et al.2004; Oniango et al. 2006) the crop thus has the potential to meet the ever increasing protein demand of the people in the sub-sahara African if grown on a large scale.



1.2       Aim and objective

The aim and objectives of this project work are

To determine the best cooking method of African yam beans

To determine the effect of cooking time on the proximate, mineral and anti nutritional factor



TITLE                                                                                                                         I

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     II

DEDICATION                                                                                                           III

ACKNOWLEDGMENT                                                                                           IV

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                             V

ABSTRACT                                                                                                               VI




1.1       Legumes                                                                                                          1 – 2

1.2       African yam bean                                                                                            3

1.1.3    Aims and objectives                                                                                        3




2.1       Origin of legumes                                                                                           4 – 7

2.2       legumes cultivated for phytochemicals.                                                          7 – 8

2.3       History of African yam beans                                                                         8 – 9

  1. 4 Potential of African yam beans.                                                                     9 – 10

2.5       Biodiversity of African yam beans.                                                                10

2.6       Anti-nutritional properties of legumes.                                                           10 – 11

2.7       Changes during germination                                                                          12 – 14

2.8       Cooking.                                                                                                        14

2.9       Toxicity compound present in legumes                                                          14 – 15




3.1       Materials                                                                                                         16

3.2       Methods                                                                                                          16

3.3       Anti-nutritional analysis                                                                                  16

3.3.1    Determination of tannic acid (Tannin)                                                            16 – 17

3.3.2    Determination of Trypsin Inhibitors.                                                              17

3.3.3    Determination of Phytic Acid (Phytate)                                                         17 – 18

3.3.4    Determination of Oxalate                                                                               18

3.3.5    Determination of Saponin                                                                               18 – 19

3.4       Proximate analysis                                                                                          19

3.4.1    Crude protein determination                                                                           19

3.4.2    Crude fibre determination                                                                              20

3.4.3    Determination of ash                                                                                      20 – 21

3.4.4    Determination of moisture content.                                                                21

3.4.5    Determination of crud fat                                                                               21 – 22

3.5       Determination of minerial                                                                               22



4.0       RESULT AND DISCUSSION                                                                     23

4.1       Result                                                                                                              23 – 24

4.2       Discussion                                                                                                       24 – 29



5.0       CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                           30

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      30

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            30

Reference                                                                                                        31 – 33




The physico-chemical properties of Honey was determined by analyzing the proximate, Ash content, Sulphated Ash, Total organic solids, Specific Gravity, Water content, Refractive Index, PH, Total sugar /Reducing (Brix),Colour (Icumsa Unit), Dextrose(%), Fructose, Glucose, Viscosity(p/sec). The result indicated proximate composition to be Ash content(%)(2.53-1.07), Sulphated Ash(1.23-0.85),Total organic solids(18.23-20.35),Specific Gravity(1.40-1.41),Water scontent (20.20-20.80),Refractive Index(1.488-1.487),PH(4.20-4.00),Total sugars (79.20-78.60), Colour (61.33-64.97), Dextrose (8.56-0.45), Fructose (39.51-46.27), Glucose (31.13-31.88),Viscosity(3.48-5.04).



Title page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Table of content                                                                                  v


Chapter One

1.0       Introduction                                                                            1 – 3

1.1       Aims and Objectives                                                               3


Chapter Two

2.0       Literature review                                                                     4

2.1       History of honey                                                                     4

2.2       Religious significance of honey                                              4 – 5

2.2.1    Physical properties                                                                  5

2.2.2    Uses of honey                                                                                     6

2.3       Honey grading                                                                                    6 – 7

2.4       Types of honey                                                                       7 – 9

2.5       Varieties                                                                                  9 – 10

2.6       Classification                                                                          10 – 11

2.7       Quality Indicator                                                                   11

2.8       Food value                                                                              12

2.9       Granulation                                                                             12

2.10     Determination of quality                                                         12 – 13

2.12     Sugars                                                                                     13

2.13     Proteins and amino-acids                                                        13

2.14     Nutritional                                                                               13 – 14

2.15     Modern uses of honey                                                                        14 – 15

2.16     Osmotic effect                                                                                    15

2.17     Honey drew honey                                                                 15 – 16

2.18     Classification by packaging and processing                           16 – 17


Chapter Three

3.0       Materials and methodology                                                    18

3.1       Fructose                                                                                  18

3.2       Glucose                                                                                   18

3.3       Reducing disaccharides as maltose                                         19

3.4       Sucrose                                                                                    19

3.5       Higher sugars or dextrin                                                         20

3.6       Determination of sugars                                                          20 – 21

3.7       Distribution of sugars                                                             21

3.8       Separation of sugars in honey                                                 21

3.9       Glucose (Commercial) in honey                                              22


Chapter Four

4.0       Presentation and analysis of data                                           23

4.1       Presentation of table                                                               24 – 26


Chapter Five

5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                           26

5.1       Conclusion                                                                              26

5.2       Recommendation                                                                    26

References                                                                              27




Honey is as old as written history dating back to 2100 BC where it was mentioned Sumerian and Babylonian cuneiform writings, the Hittie code and then sacred writings of India and Egypt it is presumably even older than that. It names from English living and it was the first and most wide spread sweetener used by man, legend has it that cupid dipped his love arrows in honey before aiming at unsuspecting lovers. In the old testament of the Bible, Israel was often referred to as the land of milk and honey. “Mead, an alcoholic drink made from honey was called nectar of the goods” high praise indeed. Honey was valued highly and often used as a form of currency tribute or offering. In the 4th century (A. D German) peasants paid their feudal Lords in honey and beeswax. .According to Hoff F. (1994)  Honey: Background for 1995 Farm Legislation. Agricultural Economic Report. No 708 A. 107. 708.

Although experts argue whether the honeybee is native to the Americas, conquering spanards in 1600 AD found Mexicans and Central Americans had already developed bee keeping method to produce honey. In ancient days, honey has been used not only in food and beverages, but also to make cement in furniture polishes and varnishes and for medicinal purposes. And of course, bees perform vital senlice of pollinating fruits, legumes and other types of food producing plants in the course of their business of honey production. Honey was pronounced in English (hnni) is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. The variety produced by honey bees i.e. (GenusApis) is the most commonly referred to and is the type of honey collected by bee keepers and consumed by human. (According to   Ministry of Agricultural, Fisheries and Food (1997). Production and Marketing of Honey. Select committees on the Europeans Communities, Session 1996-7,8th Report. The stationary office London). Honey produced by other bees and insects has distinctly different properties. Honey bees transform nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation, and store it as a primary food source wax honey combs inside the beehive. Beekeeping practices encourage over production of honey so the excess can be taken from the colony. Honey acts its sweetness from the monosaccharides fructose and glucose and has approximately the same relative sweetness as that of granulated sugar. It has attractive chemical properties for baking and a distinctive flavours that leads some people to prefer it over sugar and other sweetness. Most microorganisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity (9w) of 0.6. However, honey sometimes contains dormant endospores of the bacterium clostridium botulinum which can be dangerous to infants, as the endospores can transform into toxin producing bacteria in the infant’s immature intestinal tract, leading to illness and even death. (Ambrose J.J  Graham (ed) (1992). The Hive and the honey bee. Prof. Entomology and Extension Apricultist, NC State Univ. Hamilton, IL: Danant.)

In the hive, the bees use their “Honey stomachs” to ingest and regurgitate the nectar a number of times until it is partially digested. The bees work together as a group with the regurgitation and digestion until the product reaches a desired quality. It is then store honeycomb cells after the final regurgitation the honeycomb is left unsealed. However, the nectar is still high in both water content and natural yeast which unchecked would cause the sugars in the nectar to ferment. The process continues as bees inside the hive fan their wings creating a strong draft across the honeycomb, which enhances evaporation of much of the water from the nectar. This reduction in water content raises the sugar concentration and prevent fermentation. Ripe honey as removed from the hive by a bee keeper has a long shelf-life and will not ferment if pro in that it will rotate the polarization plane. The fructose will give a negative rotation while the glucose will give a positive one. The overall can rotation be used to measure the ratio of the mixture.

Moreso, honey has the ability to absorb moisture directly from the air, making use of a phenomenon called hygroscopy. The amount of water the honey will absorb is dependent on the relative humidity of the air. This hygroscopic nature require that honey be stored in a sealed containers to prevent fermentation. Honey will tend to absorb more water in this manner than the individual sugars would allow on their own which may be due to other ingredients it contains.(Balderrama, N,R. Menzel & A. Mercer (eds) (1996). Neurobiology and Behaviour of Honeybees. Behavioural and Pharmacological Analysis of the Response in Africanized and Italian Bees .New York Times)

Honey which contains a number of antioxidants components that act as preservatives, also shows promise as a replacement for some synthetic antioxidant widely used as a preservatives in salad dressings and other foods, according to Vicki Engeseth, associate professor of food chemistry at the university. High fructose syrups that is known as Isoglucose in Europe, kicked in the US in the 1970s when the country developed new technologies to process this bulk calorific sweetener. The ingredient is an alternative to sucrose rapidly gained in popularity and is now used extensively by soft drinks makers such as Coca-cola and Pepsi-cola.The Aims and Objectives of the work was to determine the Chemical and Physico-chemical properties of Honey.



This project work primarily based on isolation & identification of bacteria floral of the microbiology laboratory of the Osun State Polytechnic Iree using standard microbiological techniques. The identified bacteria species includes; Staphylococcus specie, Streptococcus specie and Bacillus Species.




Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of content                                                                                                                      v

Abstract                                                                                                                                  vi



1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.2       Micro organisms are a component of the atmosphere                                     1 – 3 1.4          Atmospheric Transportation of Micro organisms                                                     3 – 4

1.5       Consolidating Microbiology and Atmospheric Science in the upcoming

Era of Bio-meteorology                                                                                              4 – 5



2.0       Materials and method                                                                                                 6

2.1       Material                                                                                                                       6

2.2       Media Preparation                                                                                                       6

2.3       Characteristic of bacteria isolates                                                                               7 – 8



3.0       Results                                                                                                                        10                   


4.0       Discussion, Conclusion and Recommendation                                                           11

4.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   11

4.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  12

4.3       Recommendation                                                                                                        13

Reference                                                                                                                    14




Bacteria live all around us, they are microorganisms which cannot be seen with the naked eyes except with the use of microscope. They are procaryotic cell structure.

Bacteria are present in water and air, but our focus is bacteria present in air. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on earth and are present in most habitats on the planet.

Experiments was carried out in the microbiology laboratory to isolate and identify the bacterial present in the atmosphere of the laboratory. There are many bacteria in the air, some air floral bacteria discovered are Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and bacillus specie. These bacteria cause diseases to both man and animal. For example, Bacillus organisms causes dysentary, Some causes throat disease, cholera, typhoid and urinary tract infection.   



For the past 200 years, research in the field of aerobiology has focused primarily on describing the types and taxonomic groups of biological particles in the atmosphere and the spatio-temporal variations in their abundance. The year 1847 can be considered as the starting point of aerobiology in a relatively modern sense when Ehrenberg published his monograph on” passat dust and blood rain-a great invisible organic action and life in the atmosphere”(krumbein,1995)

In 1993, an IGAP (International global Aerosol Programme) workshop in Geneva defined primary biological aerosol particles as airborne solid particles (dead or alive) that are or were derived from dead living organism, including micro organisms and fragments of all varieties of living things. According to the recent work of Jaenicke (2005) about 25% of the particles suspended in air(by mass or number) in the size range of 0.2 to 50um are primarily biological aerosol particles. This estimate is based on numerous observations, mainly via staining methods to distinguish individual protein-containing particles from others. In the work , particles smaller than 2um have been distinguished by morphology as well as typical elements .This abundance of biological particles in the air certainly raises the question of the world-wide production of such particles . Jaenicke (Jaenicke 2005) has estimated that the major sources of particles in Earth’s atmosphere–desert, oceans and the biosphere are of equal strength but the importance of microorganism or any organism as a component of aerosol and as players in atmospheric physico-chemial process is likely to vary substantially under different environmental conditions. As for mineral aerosols, microorganisms originate from sources and during seasons that are associated with their specific habitats. This gives rise to the important spatial and temporal variability of qualities of microorganisms in the air.

The clear take home message from two centuries of investigations is that biological particles in the atmosphere are ubiquitors and that microorganisms can be an important component of these biological particles. Microorganisms are particularly abundant during favourable period for disease of crop plants caused by fungi with aerially disseminated spores and of human activities that are particularly important in releasing microbial particles into the atmosphere such combining and other activities  associated with crop harvesting. Concentration of bacteria, for example, near the canopy level have been observed to range between thousands to 108 bacteria m3. Among the bacteria detected in the atmosphere, many are Gram-positive and include spore formers such as Bacillus and micro bacterium spp. which were particularly dominant in the air during a dust event. But Gram-negative bacteria, having a cell wall that is considered to be more fragile than that of Gram-positive bacteria have also been found .

The most prevailing and well-studied effects on air flora variability are those to meteorological factors such as wind speed and direction , relative humidity ,rainfall and solar radiation .The chemical composition and PH of aerosols can also influence micro floral in the air. Several authors have reviewed the influence of meteorological factors on bacteria in the atmosphere. Concerning the chemical composition of the atmosphere, air-borne microbial concentrations have been observed to increase with increasing CO2 concentrations. The PH in the atmosphere can also influence the abundance and types of micro floral present. In Clouds, an acidic PH favors the presence of spore-forming bacteria where as a neutral PH is favourable to the presence of a greater diversity of microorganisms.

Seasonal and daily variation in the amount and kinds of microorganisms in the air also mark able. High concentrations of air-borne bacteria frequently occur from spring to fall in temperate areas of the world, mainly due to the fact that leaf surfaces are a major source of bacteria in the air.



The mechanisms that contribute to the abundance and ubiquity of micro organism in the atmosphere are the foundation of the roles they play in atmospheric process. Via these mechanism, sufficient number of microorganism can be transported to the pertinent atmosphere and deposition. The mechanism of microbial survival in the atmosphere are also critical to the atmospheric processes requiring active metabolism. The little information available about the properties of particles transporting microorganisms ,and again particularly for bacteria, leaves us wondering about how microorganisms survive, the factors that contribute to their metabolic activity in the atmosphere, and the most appropriate values for particle parameters in models to estimate their trajectories.

Above water surfaces, creation of aerosols containing microorganisms occurs by bubble bursting . This can lead to biological particles in the atmosphere in remote regions such as above the central Arctic ocean. Drying of leaf surfaces due to biological processes or to changing atmospheric conditions could also enhance the emission of plant associated microorganisms. We can speculate that microorganisms might also be released into the atmosphere even under calm conditions if microbial growth leads to population sizes that exceed the physical carrying capacity of the plant surfaces. Common techniques for measurement of aerosol number density shape, optical and surface properties, as well as chemical characterization of condensed and semi-volatile matter have been deployed ,but none can fully capture the physical and chemical complexity of  biological matter. There is a need to determine which particle properties are most relevant. Techniques are needed that allow detection over space and relatively short time intervals of these particles whose concentrations are likely to be low.

Much of the data concerning the abundance of specific microorganisms in the air are based on the growth of these organisms on the culture media used for sampling. This approach has hidden the nature of the particles with which these microorganisms are associated. Observations of clusters containing bacteria-like particles and in some cases covered with mucus – like material suggest that chunks or remnants of microbial biofilms might be a sort of sailing ship for bacteria offering both a means of take-off and survival in the air . But over all, little is known about the properties of particles that transport microorganisms in the air. Specific information on the size and nature of the microbe–carrying particles is essential for transport models dependent on parameters concerning aerodynamic properties of particles and is also important for the development of detection tools that capture or detect particles based on size, shape, phase and chemical characteristics.



Research on the role of microorganisms in meteorological phenomena and in atmospheric processes in general is part of a growing interest in the importance of the biosphere on climate change. This is an under explored component of a research field referred to as bio-meteorology. An important challenge for the next decades regarding microorganisms is to go beyond description of microbial abundance in the atmosphere toward an understanding of their dynamics in terms of both biological and physico-chemical properties and of the relevant transport process at different scales . As we explore the interactions of microorganisms with the atmosphere, hypotheses about the importance other roles will likely emerge.

An additional challenge is to develop this understanding under contexts pertinent to their potential role in atmospheric processes thereby providing support for their specific involvement in these processes. This can implicate construction of conceptual and numerical models of microbial flux into the environment; of trajectories survival, multiplication ,metabolic activity and perhaps even genetic exchange; and of the degree to which different species or physiological states of microorganisms mediate processes affecting atmospheric chemistry, the formation of clouds, precipitation and radiative forcing the role of airborne bacteria as potential sources and sinks for acetone and other volatile organics in the atmosphere is one of the interesting questions in microbiological meteorology, with implications for climate and weather. Currently, few students take the risk to attain this multiple competency in their training because the extra investment in coursework is not always readily compatible with the requirements and the time constrains imposed by their training program. A greater flexibility of training programs in this regard will enhance progress of this and other research themes in environmental sciences. Corresponding chemistry and aerosol modules have been developed .Some models permit the study of interactions of cloud physics and aerosol physics including chemistry. Although there has been a major leap in the development of numerical models, there are still major gaps in these models for properly capturing elemental physical and chemical processes such as aerosol-cloud interactions. This has been noted as a major uncertainty for predicting climate change.

Furthermore, only a very limited number of model applications deal with biological particles, their sources and their possible environmental implications



Pito drink was produced from sorghum grain. The product was subjected to mycotoxin analysis using the HPLC. The result of the analysis shows that ochratoxin A and fumonisin are present in the samples the pito has high value of ochratoxin A than the sorghum grain. Also the pito sample has 51.138 ng/ml of OTA while sorghum grain has 39.680ng/ml of OTA. The result also shows that fumonisin value of pito sample is 20.856ng/ml while 16.241ng/ml is present in the sorghum grain. The result within the permitted level or tolerance of OTA and fumonisin according to WHO/FAO, Joint expert committee on food additives (JWECFA M1996)




Title page                                                                                            i

Certification                                                                                        ii

Dedication                                                                                          iii

Acknowledgement                                                                              iv

Abstract                                                                                              v

Table of content                                                                                  vi



1.0       Introduction                                                                            1 – 6

1.1       Cereals                                                                                                6 – 12

1.2       Pito                                                                                          11 – 13

1.3       Beverages                                                                                13 – 14

1.4       Aim and Objectives                                                                14



2.0       Literature review                                                                     15

2.1       Health implication of mycotoxins                                           16 – 17

2.2       Alimentary toxin aleukal                                                         17 – 18

2.3       Health implication                                                                   18

2.4       Acute cardiac beriberi                                                             18 – 19

2.5       Effect of ochratoxin A an Human and Animal Health          19 – 20

2.6       Effect of fumonism on Human and Animal                           20 – 22






3.0       Materials and methodology                                                    23

3.1       Materials                                                                                 23

3.2       Methodology                                                                          23

3.3       Malting process                                                                       23

3.3.1    Fig 3.3.1 Flow chart for the production of pito                      24

3.4       Extraction procedure                                                              24 – 25




4.0       Results and Discussion                                                           26

4.1       Result                                                                                      26

4.2       Discussion                                                                               26 – 27



5.0       Conclusion and Recommendation                                          28

5.2       Conclusion                                                                              28

5.3       Recommendation                                                                    28

Reference                                                                                29





Mycotoxins are chemical compounds procued by actively growing molds (Fungi) as secondary metabolites that can negatively affect human.  The term mycotoxin is usually reserved for the toxic chemical products product by fungi that readily colonize crops. Most fungi are aerobic. (They use oxygen) and are found almost everywhere in extremely small qualities due to the minute size of their spores. They consume organic matter whenever humidity and temperature are sufficient. One mold species may produce many different mycotoxins and/or the same mycotoxin as another species. (Desjardin proctor, 2007).

Where conditions are right, fungi proliferate into colonies and mycotoxins levels become high. The reason for the production of mycotoxins is not yet known, they are neither necessary for growth nor the development of the fungi. Because mycotoxins weaken the receiving host, the fungus may use them as a strategy to better the environment for further fungi proliferation. The production of toxins depends on the surrounding intrinsic and extrinsic, environments and the toxins vary greatly in their severity, depending on the organism infected and its susceptibility, metabolism and defense mechanisms. Some of the health effects found in animals and humans include death, identifiable diseases or health problems, weakened immune systems without specificity to a toxin and as a allergens or irritants. Some mycotoxins are harmful to other microorganisms such as other fungi or even bacteria, penicillin is one example. It has been suggested that mycotoxin in stored animal feed are the cause of apparent sex change in hens (Gajecki 2002, kamimura 1987).

Mycotoxins can appear in the food chain as a result of fungal infection of crops, either by being eaten directly by humans or by being used as livestock feed. Mycotoxins greatly resist decomposition or being brokendown in digestion, so they remain in the food chain in meat and dairy products. Even temperature treatments, such as cooking and freezing, do not destroy mycotoxins (klich and pitt, 1988).

Although various wild mushrooms contain an assortment of poisons that are definitely fungal metabolites causing noteworthy health problems for human, they are rather arbitral excluded from discussion of mycotoxilogy. In such cases the distinction. Mycotoxins exposure is almost always accidental whereas with mushrooms improper identification and ingestion causing mushroom poisoning is commonly the case. Ingestion causing misidentified mushrooms containing mycotoxins may result in hallucinations. The cyctopeptide produced Amantia phallodie is well known for its toxic potential and is responsible for approximately 90% of all mushroom fatalities. (shank 1978).

Many international agencies are trying to achieve universal standardization of regulatory limits formycotoxins. Currently, over 100 countries have regulations regarding mycotoxins in the feed industry in which 13 mycotoxins or group of mycotoxins are concerns. The process of assessing a need for mycotoxin regulation includes a wide array of in laboratory testing which includes extracting, clean up and separation techniques most official regulations and control methods are based on high performance liquid techniques (e.g. HPLC) through international bodies. It is implied that any regulations regarding these toxins will be in co-ordinance with any other countries with which a trade agreement exists. Many of the standard for the method performance analysis for mycotoxins is set by the European committee for standardization (CEN). However, one must take note that scientific risk assessment is commonly influenced by culture and politics which in turn will affect trade regulations of mycotoxins. (Newell, 1983).

Food based mycotoxins were studied extensively worldwide throughout the 20th century. In Europe, statutory levels of a range of mycotoxins permitted in food and animal are set by a range of European directives and commission regulations. The US food and drug administration has regulated and enforced limits on concentrations of mycotoxins in foods and feed industries since 1985. it is through various compliance programs that the FDA monitors these industries to guarantee that mycotoxins are kept at a practical level. These compliance programs sample food including peanut and products, tree nuts, corn and corn products, cotton seed and milk. These is still a lack of sufficient surveillance data on some mycotoxins that occur in the US which is largely due to the lack of reliable analytical methods. A proactive monitoring program for agriculture the safety of a product. The most important types of mycotoxins are: Aflatoxins, atrinin, patulin, Ergot Alkalouds etc.


            These are type of mycotoxins produced by aspergillus species of fungi such as A flauus and A parasiticus. The umbrella term of mycotoxins produced which are B1, B2, G1 and G2. Aflatoxin B1, the most toxic is a potent carcinogen and has been directly connected to adverse health effects such as Liver cancer, in many animal species (Klich and Pitt, 1988).

Aflatoxins were discovered in 1960 following the death of 100,000 young Turkey in England, and high incidences of the liver diseases in Ducklings in Kenya and hatchery reared trout in the United States, English scientists United States, English scientists soon established the cause of all these problem to be toxins produced by the common moulds. Aspergillus flavus assay techniques were devised and preliminary toxicological studies carried out (sergeant 1963). Aflatoxins have both acate and chronic toxicity in animals are produce four quite different effects. Acute liver damage, liver, arrhosis, induction of tumours and teratogence and other genetic effects. Acute toxicity of aflatoxins to humans has been encountered only rarely (Shank, 1978). In 1967, Tawanese in two farming communities became ill with apparently food poisoning. Nineteen of these affected were children of whom three died. Rice from affected households were blackish green and mouldly, and appeared to be of poorer quality than rice, contained about 200g/kg of Aflatoxin B1, which probably responsible for the outbreak post mortem examination were not carried out. In 1974, an outbreak of hepatitis that affected 400 Indian people of whom 100 died was almost certainly due to aflatoxins. The outbreak was eared to corn heavily contaminated with flavus and containing upto aflatoxons, consumption by some of the affected adults was estimated to be 2 – 6mg in a single day. It has been Reye’s syndrome, a common cause of death in Southeast Asian. Significant levels of aflatoxins (1 – 4g/kg) was found in the livers of 23 Thai children who have died from Reye’s syndrome in zechoslovakia and in New Zealand have also been found to have aflatoxins in their livers at autopsy kwashiorkor, a disease of children in Northern Africa and elsewhere in undernourished populations which is usually attributed to nutritional deficiencies, may also be related to aflatoxin intake (Hendrickse, 1982). Aflatoxin induced liver damage may make these children less able to cope with the high protein diets usually recommended as the cure for kwashiorkor (Newell 1983).


Ochratoxin is a mycotoxin that comes in three secondary metabolite form A, B, and C. All are produced by penicillum and Aspergillus species, the three forms difer in that ochratoxin B (OTB) is a non chlorinated form of ochratoxin A (OTA) and that ochratoxin C (OTC) is na ethyl ester form of ochratoxin A. Aspergillus ochraccus is found as a contamination of a wide range of commodities including beverages such as beer and wine. Aspergillus carbonarius is the main speices found vine fruit which releases its toxin during the juice making process. (Hardin, Robbins, Kelmen, 2009). In the early 1970’s observes in Denmark noted a high incidence of nephrits (Kidney inflammation) in pigs at slaughter. A search for possible cause eventually showed the presence of ochratoxin A, a mycotoxin originally reported from Aspergillus ochraceus. Analysis of pigt feeds showed that 50% of samples contained ochratoxin A at levels upto 27mg/kg. The mould responsible was reprted to be penicilliom virdicatum, but has more recently been shown to be pverrucosum (Pilt 1987). This species occur commonly in Danish barely (frisvad and vauf, 1985). The discovery of ochratoxin led to analysis of pork and becon. It was found that a significant proportion of ingested ochratoxin lodged unchanged in depot fat. The risk to humans is difficult to assess, but as pig meat are an important part of the Danish diet and rural populations usually eat their own uninspected pigs certainly exists. Death rates from kidney failure are high in some Danish rural areas and it is reasonable to suppose the cause is ochratoxin, penicillum verrocusum has not been report to occur in Asia aspergillus ochraceus and related species which also produce ochratoxin A. The significance of ochratoxin A. in trpical climate has not yet been assessed (King 1979, Lancet 1979).


This is a toxin that was first isolated from penicullum, citrinum in over a dozen species of penicillium and several species of Aspergillus some of these species are used to produce human foodstuffs such as cheese (penicillum camcmberti) cake, Miso and soa sauce (Aspergillus Oryzae). Citrnin is associated with yellow rice diseases in Japan and acts as a nephhrotoxin in all animal species tested. Although it is associated with many human foods, (wheat, rice, corn, barley, oats iye and food coloured with monascus pigment) its full significance for human health is unknown (Susan, 2006)


These are compounds produced as a toxic mixture of alkaloids in the sclerotia of species of clauiceps which are common pathogens of various grass spices. The ingestion of ergot sclerota form infected cereals, commonly in the form of bread produced form contaminated flour, cause ergotism, the human disease histrionically known as St. Anthony’s Fire.


            This is a toxin produced by the P expansumi, aspergillus and paccilomyces fungi, species P expansum is especially associated with a range of mouldly fruits nad vegetables. Mycotoxins are important because they can be costly when they affect. Animal productivity, human health, international trade, the foods are agriculture organization of the United Nation (FAO) states the cost of the mycotoxins in Canada and United States is approximately 5billion a year. Mycotoxin can develop at various stage of pre-harvest growth. Harvest, storage (Schaafsma, Hooker, 2007)


1.1.      CEREAL

Cereals, grains or cereal grains are grasses (members of the monocot families poaseac or Graminea) cultivated for the edible components of their fruit seeds (botanically a type of fruit called a caryopsis) the endosperm, germ and bran cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other types of crop, they are therefore staple crops.

In their natural form as in whole grain, they are a rich source of vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, fat, oils and protein. However, when refined by the removal of the bran and germ, the remaining endosperm is mostly carbohydrates and lacks the majority of the other nutrients. In some developing nations grain in the form of rice, wheat, millet or maize constitutes a majority of daily sustenance. In developed nations, cereal consumption is moderate and varied but still substantial. (Ekundayo, 1965)





The origins of some cereals are obscure more than one had its cultural beginning before recorded history. The development of cereal grains, probably more than any other factor permitted the earliest tribes to change from nomadic life to full or partial agricultural subsistence. They provided more food with less effort than did any other crop. They were important for their ability to provided subsistence and security of subsistence overtime. Cereals can be easily stored to provide food between harvests. Their role reducing the time spent by people in hunting and gathering allowed human kind to develop other pursuits.

The various cereals probably developed in different parts of the world coin is likely the only cereal nature to the Americas, while wheat and barely may have been cultivated first in the Fertile Crescent area of the Middle East. The pseudo-cereal amaranth is also native to the Americas and the earliest identification of amaranth as a grain comes from archaeological dig at a caw in tehaucan, pueble, Mexico where seeds of Amaranthus cruentus were dated as six thousand years old. Aztec writings are the first recorded indication of its use and mention collection of large quantities of amaranth along with corn and beans in annual tribute to the ruling class. Although the orgin of proso millet has not been ascertained, it is one of the first cultivated cereals, most like prior to wheat. Proso millet has been known for many thousands of years in Eastern Asia including China, India and Russia (Ekundayo, 1965).


            Maize wheat and rice together accounted for 87% of all grain production worldwide and 43% of all food calories in 2003, while the production of oats and rye have drastically fallen from their 1960s levels other grain that are important in some places but that have little production globally land are not included in FAO statistics include.

Test popular in Ethiopia but scarcely known elsewhere. This ancient grain is a staple in Ethiopia. It is high in fiber and protein. Its flair is often used to make injera. It can also be eaten as a warm breakfast cereal similar to ferima with a chocolate or nutly flavour. Its flour and whole grain products can usually be found in natural food stores.

  • Wild rice, grown in small amounts in North America
  • Amaranth, ancient pseudocereal, formerly a staple crop of the Aztec Empire and now widely grown in Africa.
  • Kaniwa, close relative of guinea.

Several other species of wheat have also been domesticated some very early in the history of agriculture.

  • Spelt, a close relative of common wheat
  • Einkorn, a wheat species with a single grain
  • Emmer, one of the first crops domesticated in the fertile crescent
  • Durum, the only tetraploid species of wheat currently cultivated, used to make semolina.


While each individual species has its own peculiarities, the cultivation of all cereal crops is similar. All are annual plants consequently one planting yields one harvest. Wheat, rye, triticale, oats, barley, and spelt are the “cool-season” cereals. These are hardly plants that grow well in moderate weather and cease to grow in hot weather (approximately 300c but this varies by species and Varity). The warm season cereals are tender and prefer hot weather. Barely and rye are the hardiest cereals able to overwinter in the subarctic and Siberia. Many cool season cereals are grow where it may be possible to grow multiple crops in a year (Emmanual D. A, 1975)




The warm season cereals are grow intropical lowland year round and in temperature climates during the frost free season. Rice is commonly grown in flooded through some strains are grown on dry land other warm climate cereals, such as sorghum are adapted to arid condtions.

Cool season cereals are well adpted to temperate climates. Most varieties of a particular species are either winter or spring types. Winter varieties are sown in the autumn, germinate and grow vegetatively, then become dormant during winter. They resume growing in the spring time and mature in late spring or early summer. This cultivation system make optimal use of water and free the land for another crop early in the growing season.

Winter varieties do not flower until springtime because they require vernalization. Exposure to low temperature for a genetically determined length of time. Where winters are too warm vernalization or exceed the hardness of the crop (which varies by species and variety), farmers grow spring varieties. Spring cereals and planted in early spring time and mature later that same summer without vernalization. Spring cereals typically required more irrigation and yield less than winter cereals


Once the cereals plants have grown their seeds they have completed their life cycle. The plants die and become brown and dry. As soon as the parents and their seed kernels are reasonably dry, harvest can begin.

In developed countries, cereal crops are universally machine harvested, typically using a combine harvester, which cuts, threshes and winnows are grain during a single pass across the field. In developing countries, a variety of harvest methods are in use depending on the cost of labour, from combines to hand tools such as the single or cradle.

If a crop is harvested during wet weather, the grain may not dry adequately in the field to prevent spoilage during its storage. In this case, the grain is sent to a dehydrating facility where artificial heat dries it.

In North America, farmers commonly deliver their newly harvested grain to a grain elevator, a large storage facility that consolidates the crops of many farmers. The farmer may sell the grain at the time of delivery or maintain ownership of a share of grain in the pool for later sale. Storage facilities should be protected from small grain pests, rodents and birds.


Compared with many other crops, cereals and pseudo cereals are extremely amenable to storage. The moisture content at harvest is typically below 15 percent and their composition and seed coats are such that deterioration is slow. Seasonal harvest with a continuous demand means that storage between harvest is required under typical conditions this need can be met easily with care, storage for many years without serious loss of quality is possible storage during times of surplus is a part of human history, and with benefits of modern technology, cool dry conditions can be maintained and storage can be successful for extended periods of time. There are however problems with storage including excessive moisture content at the time of storage, excessive temperature microbial, insect and arechuid infectation, rodent and bird predation, mechanical damaged and biochemical deterioration. The latter is especially important for cereals and pseudo cereals with higher than normal oil content because the oil becomes rancid overtime.


Overview and constraints, Nigeria is the second largest producer of sorghum with the majority of domestic production used for household consumption and fodder. Elsewhere in the world, sorghum is a cash crop processed in to food, beverages, commercial animal feed and ethanol. Development of commercial sorghum offers substantial benefits to Nigeria farmers and National food security. Increase demand and production yield in turn raise farmer income. Commercial sorghum farming techniques similar to those for maize and wheat can produce harvest in excess of 3MT perha or more than 4x tradition methods.

Market is committed replacing imported grains to meet an unmet industrial demand estimated at 200,000 matric tons per years. Market is also supporting new application for the crop out strategy increasing food security and competitiveness of Nigerian sorghum requires improvements in technology on farm practices and supply chain linkages. MARKETS has partnered with commercial processes such as the Aba malting plant in Abia State, the largest sorghum plant in the world, markets is also supporting a sorghum hybrid development program in collaboration with research institutes IAR and ICRISAT. It is expected that well adapted sorghum hybrids will help to push up yields from 2 to 4 mt/ha thereby increasing income from less than 20,000 Naria.ha to over 50,000 Naira/ha

The sorghum malting plant in Abia State, which reduces imports of malted barley, points to investor confidence in the continued competitionness of Nigeria sorghum in the local beverage industry. Aba malting plant can currently process 30,000 MT of sorghum and plans to expend capacity to 60,000 MT. Nigeria currently produces enough sorghum to satisfy local demand and export 50,000 MT per annum (Ekundayo 1969).



1.2.      PITO

Pito is a fermented alcoholic beverage which is traditionally brewed from sorghum or maize malts. It has a characteristic sour taste and is slightly and is slightly heavy in the mouth during drinking. It is a fermentation product of mixed culture of yeast, mould and lacticacid bacteria, all of which may be active when the product is consumed. It is drunk mainly along the west coast of Africa especially in Nigeria. The traditional method of producing pito which involves malting of the sorghum grains, mashing and fermentation of the wort has been described (Ekundayo 1969, Orgbonna 1983).

Pito like most other local beers in Nigeria is still produced on a small scale with traditional and primitive equipment and by people that have no scientific knowledge of the process and have little regard for hygiene. The production process renders the brew very susceptible to contanunation by pathogence organisms during production Ogbonna (1983) noted that some pito consumers have often complained about having running stomach after taking alcoholic beverages. Similar cereal based


In the melt house, barley grain germination is initiated by the uptake of water in a steeping vessel. The grain imbibes water during controlled cycles of water spraying  or water immersion followed by aeration until the water content of the grain reaches 42 to 48%, water enters the grain via the embryo and after approximately 24 hours, the first visible sign of germination is the appearance of the root, as a white chit. The grains are then transferred to malting beds where germination is allowed to proceed a period of 5 days.

The speed of germination is controlled by temperature and aeration of the malt bed, while moisture content is maintain by spraying further embrayo growth, with the appearance of roottess and acrospire can lead to root entangling. The grain bed is regularly turned with a rotating screw to prevent grains melting together. Green malt produced after five days of germination it is kila dried and partly cooked in a forced flow of hot air. Hydrolaser produced during malting are partially inactivated during the process, malt colour, enhance by killing at higher temperature, may be desirable for production of darker beer, but it leads to further heat inactivation of hydrolases. The brittle malt rootlets are separated from the malt and utilized in animal feeds. The kilned malt is stable for storage and has a friable texture for the milling process which proceeds brewing (Ekundayo 1969).


1.3.      BEVERAGES

There are several kinds of beverages which are not consumed for their food which value but rather for their thirst quenching properties or for their stimulating effects. There are different types of beverage. We have alcoholic beverage and non alcoholic beverage.


An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly know as alcohol. Alcoholic beverages that distilled after fermentation are fermented from non cereal source such as grapes or honey or are fermented from unmalted cereal grain are not classified as beer the two main types of beer are ages and ace. Ale is further classified into varieties such as pale ace, stout and brown ace. Most beer is flovoured with hops which add bitterness and act as a natural preventative other flavouring such as fruit or herbs may else be used. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 65 alcohol by volume, but it may be less than 2 % or as beer is part of the drinking culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals. The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume.

Most yeast cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%, so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer and sake, strains of yeast have been developed that reproduce in solution of up to 25% (Gamma 1977).




A non alcoholic beverages is a beverage that contain less than 0.5% alcohol by volume. Non- alcoholic versions of some alcohol beverages, such as non alcoholic beer (near beer) and cocktails (mocktails), are widely available where alcoholic beverages are sold. Sodas, juices and sparkling cider contain no alcohol but non alcoholic beer and non alcoholic wine undergo an alcohol removal process that may leave a small amount of alcohol because of this, some states have legal restrictions on non-alcoholic beer and wine.

Non-alcoholic beverages are carbonated beverages are those made in the presence of carbon compound especially carbondioxide, Examples are soda, water, coca- cola, ginger ale, tonic water, pepsi-cola etc. Non carbonated beverages are those that are merely juice from fruits drink and nectars, vegetable juice, water, chocolate drinks, coffee, tea, black currant etc. (Gamma ,1977). There are other classes of beverages called traditional alcoholic and non- alcoholic beverages. These beverages most often are produced from cereals and are sometime fermented. Examples are pito, burukuru, kunu-zaki



The aims and objectives of this work is to produce non-alcoholic local beverages from cereals which is pito and to analyze the sample for possible presence of mycotoxin.



The African sweet fruit Anarcardium occidentale nuts were obtained from discards of fruit and prepared for use by decoating, sundrying and roasting, oil extraction by solvent extraction using petroleum ether (soxhlet method), a pale yellow coloured oil was obtained and characterized by determining  the PH, refractive index, acid value, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification value, FFA%(oleic acid),specific gravity, non- saponifiable matter, and the percentage yield were obtained according to the standard method of analysis. The result shows a high degree of unsaturation, presence of reasonable amount of free fatty acids, refractive index of (1.46), and high level of acidity (1.64) with the presence of palmitic , stearic, oleic and interestingly absence of linolenic, mystiric and arachidic acids.





Title page                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                          iv

Abstract                                                                                                          v

Table of content                                                                                              vi – vii



1.0       Introduction                                                                                        1 – 2

1.1       Fruit                                                                                                    2



2.0       Literature Review                                                                               3

2.1       Anacardiaceae Family (The Cashew Family)                                    3

2.2       Anacardium Occidentale (Cashew)                                                    3

2.2.1    Description                                                                                          3 – 4

2.2.2    Origin and Distribution                                                                       4 – 5

2.2.3    Climate                                                                                                5

2.2.4    Varieties                                                                                              5

2.3       Characteristics of Anacardiaceae Family                                            5 – 6

2.4       Uses of Cashew                                                                                  7

2.4.1    Culinary Uses                                                                                      7 – 8

2.4.2    Medicine and Industry                                                                       8

2.4.3    Alcohol                                                                                               8 – 9

2.4.4    Nutrition                                                                                             9

2.5       Uses of Cashew Oil                                                                            10

2.6       Edible Uses                                                                                         11

2.6.1    Other Uses                                                                                          11



3.0       Materials and Methodology                                                                12

3.1       Materials                                                                                             12

3.2       Methodology                                                                                      12

3.2.1    Steam Distillation                                                                               12

3.2.2    Cold Pressing                                                                                      12 – 13

3.2.3    Enfleurage                                                                                           13

3.2.4    Solvent Extraction                                                                              13 – 14

3.2.5    Turbo distillation, Hydro diffusion and carbon dioxide extraction   14 – 15

3.3       Processing Methods of Cashew Nut                                                  15 – 16

3.4       Oil Extraction                                                                                     16

3.5       Soxhlet Extraction Method                                                                17

3.6       Physico-chemical Analysis of Oil                                                       17

3.6.1    Acid Value                                                                                          17 – 18

3.6.2    Peroxide Value                                                                                   18 – 20

3.6.3    Iodine Value                                                                                       20 – 22

3.6.4    Saponification Value                                                                          22 – 23

3.6.5    Determination of PH Value                                                                 23

3.6.6    Determination of Refractive Index                                                    23

3.6.7    FFA % (oleic acid)                                                                              24

3.6.8    Specific Gravity Determination                                                          24

3.6.9    Determination Saponifiable Matter                                                    24 – 25



4.0       Results and discussion                                                                        26

4.1       Result of physico chemical analysis of cashew nut oil                       26 – 27

4.2       Discussion                                                                                           27



5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                                       28

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                          28

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                28

References                                                                                          29






Composite jam was produced from four different tropical fruits – pineapple, apple, orange and banana at different proportion. Four difernt samples were produced with the following proportion sample A 70% pineapple and 10% of banana, apple and orange. Sample B 70% banana, 10% pineapple, apple and orange. Sample C 70% apple, 10% orange, pineapple apple and banana. Sample D 70% orange. 10% pineapple, banana and apple. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis using multiple comparism method. Sample A which comparize of 70% pineapple pulp was rated best in term of colour spreadability, and General Acceptability while sample B, C and D was rated best in term of texture, taste. However statistical analysis revealed that there is no significant different among the four sample.



Title page                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii




1.0       Introduction                                                                                        1

1.1       Objectives                                                                                           1



2.0       Literature Review                                                                               2

2.1       Legume                                                                                               2 – 3

2.2       Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterrancean (L) Verdc)                      3

2.2.1    Production                                                                                          3 – 4

2.2.2    The plant                                                                                             4 – 5

2.2.3    Uses                                                                                                    6 – 8

2.2.4    Taxonomy and Origin                                                                         8 – 9

2.2.5    Genetic resources                                                                                9 – 10

2.2.6    Agronomy                                                                                           10 – 11

2.3       Future prospects                                                                                  11

2.4       Breeding                                                                                             11

2.5       Pathological                                                                                        11

2.6       Entomological                                                                                     11

2.6.1    Nutrient deficiencies                                                                           12

2.7       Storage facilities / equipment                                                              12

2.8       Drought                                                                                               12

2.9       Protein powder                                                                                   12 – 14

2.9.1    Microbiological and Enzymatic studies during the development

Of an ‘Iru’ (Locust Bean) like condiment from bambara nut nut

(Voandzeia subtereranean (L) Thours)                                               14 – 15

2.10     Influence of graded levels of toasted bambara groundnut

Meal on rabbit carcass characteristic                                                   15

2.11     Effect of germination and fermentation on the nutritional

quality of bambara nut (Voandzea subreeeenea (L) Thouars)            15 – 18

2.12     carcass, organ and organoleptic characteristics of spent layers

fed bambara nut sievates                                                                   19




3.0       Materials and Methodology                                                                20

3.1       Materials                                                                                             20

3.2       Methodology                                                                                      20

3.3       Proximate composition                                                                       20

3.3.1    Determination of fat extract                                                               20 – 21

3.3.2    Determination of dry matter and moisture content                            21

3.3.3    Determination of ash content                                                             21 – 22

3.4       Determination of minerals                                                                  22

3.4.1    Cadmium (cd)                                                                                     23

3.4.2    Iron (fe)                                                                                               23

3.4.3    Magnesium (mg)                                                                                 24

3.4.4    Copper (cu)                                                                                         25

3.4.5    Chromium (cr)                                                                         25

3.4.6    Nickel (ni)                                                                                           25

3.4.7    Manganese (mn)                                                                                  25 – 26

3.4.8    Lead (pb)                                                                                            26

3.4.9    Zinc (zn)                                                                                              26

3.4.10  Sodium (Na)                                                                                       26

3.4.11  Potassium (k)                                                                                      26 – 27

3.4.12  Calcium (Ca)                                                                                       27

References                                                                                          28




Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L) verdc) is a pulse with subterranean fruit set and is cultivated by smallholders over much of semi-arid Africa. The crop is a legume species of Africa origin and it is widespread South of Sahara. Bambara groundnut is probably the most drought resistant of the grain legumes and may be grown successfully where annual rainfalls below 500mm and optimum between 900 – 100mm per year. The nut is resistant to high temperature and can be grown on poor marginal soils not suitable for other legumes crop. (Ocran et al, 1998).

Bambara groundnut is non oily leguminous seed which contain only about 6% of other extract, it contains an appreciable amount of lysine and minimum amount of trypsin and chymotrypsin. According to Enwere (1998), bambara nut has the following composition; 9.7% of moisture, 16.0% crude protein, 5.9% crude fat, 2.9% of Ash, 64.9% of total carbohydrate. It is fairly well supplied with calcium and iron though poor in phosphorus, it contain thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and carotene but very low in ascorbic acid.

Bambara groundnut locally known as ‘nyimo’ (shona) or ‘indlubu’ (Ndebele) is an indeginous Africa crop. It is highly nutritious plant which plays a crucial role in people’s diets. However, bambara nut remains one of the crops that is most neglected by the scientific community, it is commonly referred to as ‘poor man’s crop’ and the plant has never been allocated a large research programme. The nut is mainly processed into flour which is prepared and consumed in a form popularly called ‘okpa’ among the Ibos of Nigeria. (Enwere, 1998).

In West Africa bambara groundnut was for a long time or slightly ahead of cowpea in terms of production and utilization, it has been ranked as the third most important grain legume after groundnut and cowpea in semi arid Africa. In Ghana, over 40,000 cans of various sizes of bambara nut were produced annually throughout the 1960’s and early 1970’s, the canned product was very popular throughout West Africa and competed favourably with Heinz baked beans


1.1       OBJECTIVES

The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the proximate composition of wild bambara nut (vigna subterrenean) and to determine the mineral (elemental) composition of bambara groundnut seed.



 Three varieties of pearl millet seeds (CITA2) (8156) and (8864) respectively. Each variety were obtained from IITA Ibadan. It was forted graded and the waste ones were taken to laboratory for chemical analysis, our protein content, amino acid, fatty acid profile and vitamin evolution. Result of analysis obtained in term of protein shows that sample A contain 24.87% while sample B contain 24.83% and sample C contain 22.53% respectively. In term of amino acid sample A contain 8.49% while sample B contain 8.32% and sample C contain 8.65% respectively. In term of fatty acid sample A contain 4.74% while sample B contain 4.72% and sample C contain 3.83% respectively. In term of vitamin sample A contain 5.39% while sample B contain 5.37% and sample C contain 5.38% respectively.




The millets are a group of small seeded species of cereal crops or grains belonging to the family graminaea and widely grown around the world for food and fodder. The most widely cultivated species in order of world wide production are pearl millet (Pennisatum glaucum), foxtail millet (Setaria talica), proso millet (paneium miliaceum) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) (Crawford and lec, 2003).

The most important characteristics of millet is their unique ability to tolerate and survive under adverse condition of continuous or intermittent drought as compared to most other cereals like maize and sorghum (LCR, 1997). Millets are principally food source in aid and regions of the world. Ikwell et al (1993) ranked pear millet as the most important cereal in the Southern Sudan and the Northern Guinea, Nkama (1998) outlined the uses and traditional food preparations of pearl millet in Nigeria. The grain serve as food for the majority of people of Africa who utiline it in the form of porridge produced from flour called ‘tuwo’, efresting drink ‘kunu’, dessent ‘danwake’ and palp ‘ogi’, millets bear in Cameron, millet flour called ‘Bajari’ in Western India. There are two major types of recommended and local varieties of millet in Northern Nigeria namely, Ex-Borno with a yield potential of 2,000 – 3,000 kg/ha and the improved SOSAT variety with a yield potential of 2,500.

Furthermore, the seed is a valuable food resources on account of its protein and lipid contents: 12% protein, 3% crude fibre, 4% fat (Ojediran, 2008). There is a growing interest in the crop because of the technological possibilities of its utilization in such industrial applications as starch production. Therefore, consequent on the large seals production and commercial exploitation of the crop, is the need to study the physical and mechanical attributes of this crop, which are important in the design of equipment for handling, cleaning, storing and processing (J. Sanchos et al; 2008; Vilehe et al; 2003; Kachru et al; 1994). To date some physical properties of pearl millet seeds have been evaluated by Chucwu and Ajisegiri (2005), sine and shape sphericity; Ajaw and Ojediran (2006); thousand seed mass, bulk and solid densities and terminal velocity. However, information on the combined effects of moisture variations, and crop varieties on physical properties of pearl millet appear to be scanty in literature. The present studying is therefore aimed at contributing to the knowledge of pearl millet seeds to improve the post harvest handling and storage operations and equipment through investigation of some relevant physical properties such as axial dimensions, sphericity bulk, and solid densities, thousand seed mass, angle of response and static coefficient of friction on five structural surfaces as affected by variety and moisture content.